Types of validity in research
Validity and reliability of measurements are two important factors that you need to consider when performing quantitative research. College going students of Ireland have confusion between different types of validity. In this article our expert team of Ireland assignment Help is providing the explanation of the different forms of validity along with examples for helping students in avoiding confusion.
What are the different types of validity?
Validity in research basically indicates the accuracy of methods to measures something. If specific devices or tools measure accurate things and outcomes are closely related to real values then it is considered being as valid. The 5 main types of validity in research are:
1. Construct validity
The construct can be defined as concepts which you can directly observe. You can also measure such concepts by observing and analyzing indicators that are related to it. Characteristics of people such as obesity, intelligence, depression, job satisfaction, etc. all these can be considered to be a construct. You can also apply these concepts to companies or social groups.
Construct validity is a type of validity which emphasizes on measuring whether the test measures the concept which it intends to measure. This type of validity helps in doing the evaluation of things in which the researcher might be interested. It is most suitable for measuring the overall validity of the research methodology.
Example of Construct validity in Research
Depression is not considered to be an as observable entity as we cannot measure it. But according to the psychological theory you can measure depression on the basis of indicators and symptoms such as a decline in the level of confidence, low level of energy, etc.
If you create a questionnaire for diagnosing depression then you need to analyze whether the questionnaire really helps in measuring the concept of depression. Do you also need to determine whether by utilizing the questionnaire technique you are able to analyze the mood of participants? It is very much essential for you to make sure that measurements and indicators are properly designed on the basis of previous knowledge. You should also make sure that the questionnaire consists of a relevant question which helps in measuring the known indicators of depression
2. Content validity in research
Such type of validity focuses on analyzing whether specific test which you perform represents the thing which it aims to indicate. Content validity helps in assessing whether a particular test is representative of different aspects of the construct. It is very much essential for you to ensure that the survey method covers a relevant part of the subject that is further very much crucial in order to ensure the content validity of outcomes. If you miss any aspect of your measurement then there are high chances of invalid results.
Content validity example
A tutor design an algebra test for testing the mathematical skills of students. It is very much important for the teacher to make sure that the test covers all the aspect of algebra which students have been taught in the class. If n case teacher forgets to include some types of algebra then are high chances that results could be inaccurate. In case the teacher includes such questions that are not related to algebra then outcomes will not be considered being as valid.
3. Face validity in Research
You can use such type validity in research for representing that particular test suitable for accomplishing aim. Face validity is considered to be as subjective and informal assessment. Face validity is considered to be the weakest form of validity. It can be utilized at the primary stage of designing a research method.
Example of face validity: Researcher designs a survey for measuring regularity in people’s eating habits. An investigator needs to review all items of the survey. Researchers can ask questions about every meal of day and snacks which have on a routine basis. A survey is considered to be the as best technique to represent the concept you intend to test.
4. Criterion validity
The criterion is basically an external measurement of a similar thing. It is a test which the researcher mostly utilize. Criterion validity in research is a type of research validity which analyze whether research outcome is corresponding to the different test performed on a similar thing. It helps in making an evaluation of the way outcomes of tests are correspondent to outcomes of different tests.
You for evaluating the criterion validity need to calculate the correlation between outcomes of measurements and the results of criterion measurement. High correlation indicates that specific test in which you have design measuring the thing which it expects to measure.
Example of criterion validity: A professor is university designs a test for judging the English writing skills of students. Professor for assessing the effectiveness of the test in relation to measuring English writing skills of student finds a previous test which is recognized as a valid measurement of English writing ability. After performing both the tests, the professor makes a comparison between the results of the test performed on a similar group of students. After the analysis professor found a similarity between outcomes this indicates high criterion validity.
5. Test validity
Test validity is a kind of validity which helps in determining the accuracy of actual components of measure. If you are performing experimental research then it is very crucial for you to consider internal and external validity.
It has been concluded from the above that face validity is the weakest among different validity. Another fact which has been discovered from above is that validity of the research method is very much essential for generating accurate outcomes.