AN3106 Gross Anatomy II: Thoracic and Abdominal Cavities and Contents assignment Example NUI Galway Ireland
In our last gross anatomy post, we explored the thoracic cavity and its contents. This time, we’ll take a look at the abdominal cavity and its organs. The abdominal cavity is located beneath the thoracic cavity and is shielded by the ribcage. It contains many vital organs, including the stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestines. Let’s take a closer look at these organs and learn about their functions.
The thoracic cavity contains the lungs and heart, and the abdominal cavity contains the stomach, liver, spleen, pancreas, and intestines. Each cavity is separated from the other by a sheet of muscle called the diaphragm. The thoracic cavity is further subdivided into an upper and a lower compartment by another sheet of muscle called the mediastinum.
The lungs sit in the upper compartment of the thoracic cavity and fill most of the space. Their function is to extract oxygen from the air and deliver it to the blood. The heart sits in the lower compartment of the thoracic cavity and pumps blood throughout the body.
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In this course, there are many types of assignments given to students like individual assignments, group-based assignments, reports, case studies, final year projects, skills demonstrations, learner records, and other solutions given by us.
On successful completion of the module, students should be able to:
Assignment Activity 1: Describe the neuroanatomical structures of the nervous system.
The nervous system is a complex network of cells and tissues that carries messages between the brain and the rest of the body. The brain is the control center, and it sends signals to muscles and other organs to tell them what to do.
The nervous system consists of two main parts: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord, while the PNS includes all of the nerves outside of the CNS.
The central nervous system is protected by bone (the skull) and tissue (the meninges). It sits in a fluid-filled space called the ventricles. The spinal cord extends down through a hole in the bones of the spinal column, and many nerves branch off from it to carry signals.
The peripheral nervous system is made up of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the somatic nervous system (SNS). The ANS is made up of neurons that regulate involuntary functions. These include heart rate, digestion, breathing rate, salivation, perspiration, and pupil dilation. The SNS is made up of neurons that control voluntary functions, such as moving your arms or legs.
Assignment Activity 2: Explain the function of the neuroanatomical structures of the nervous system.
The nervous system is responsible for transmitting signals between the brain and the rest of the body. The neuroanatomical structures of the nervous system include the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
The brain is responsible for processing information, directing movement, and controlling the body’s responses to external stimuli. The spinal cord transmits messages from the brain to the rest of the body, and nerves carry these messages to and from individual muscles and organs.
The function of the neuroanatomical structures of the nervous system is essential for human health and wellbeing. Damage to any part of this system can result in serious health problems. For example, damage to the brain can lead to seizures or paralysis, while damage to the spinal cord can lead to paralysis or loss of sensory function.
Assignment Activity 3: Describe how the neuroanatomical components of the central nervous system work together and impact each other.
The central nervous system is the control center for the body. It consists of the brain and spinal cord, which work together to coordinate all the activities of the body.
The brain is divided into sections that control different functions, such as movement, vision, hearing, and speech. The spinal cord sends messages from the brain to the rest of the body, relaying sensations such as pain, heat, and cold.
The central nervous system operates by sending electrical signals back and forth between nerve cells. These signals allow different parts of the brain to communicate with each other and to control bodily functions. Damage or disease can interfere with these signals and cause problems with movement, sensation, thinking, or speaking.
Assignment Activity 4: Describe the structure and function of neurons and glial cells.
Neurons are the cells of the nervous system. They are highly specialized for carrying out the tasks of communication and control that characterize nerve cells. Glial cells support and protect neurons.
There are three types of glial cells in the brain: astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia. Each type has a unique role in supporting neuron function. Astrocytes regulate the chemical environment around neurons, provide energy to neurons, and help repair damaged neuronal connections. Oligodendrocytes form myelin sheaths around neuronal axons, which increase the speed of signal transmission along axons. Microglia scavenge debris from injured or dead tissue.
The structure and function of neurons vary depending on their location. The cell body contains the nucleus, which houses the genetic information in the form of DNA, as well as other organs that carry out basic life processes. Dendrites are branching projections that extend from the cell body and receive incoming signals from other neurons. Axons are long projections that transmit outgoing signals to other neurons. The cell body and dendrites contain a cytoskeleton made up of microtubules, which provide structural support for the neuron.
The function of neurons is to receive, process, and transmit information via electrical and chemical signals. For example, neurons in the retina of the eye convert incoming light into electrical impulses that are then sent to the brain. The brain processes these signals and sends responses back via electrical impulses, which travel along neurons in the form of action potentials. Different types of stimuli produce different types of action potentials, allowing for discrimination between different sensory stimuli.
Assignment Activity 5: Understand the structure and function of the somatosensory and motor systems.
The somatosensory system is responsible for the perception of touch, pressure, pain, temperature, and vibration. The motor system is responsible for the movement of muscles and joints. Together, these systems allow us to interact with our environment.
The somatosensory system consists of four main organs: the skin, the skeletal muscles, the tendons and ligaments, and the joints. The skin is the largest organ in the body and is responsible for detecting touch, pressure, pain, temperature, and vibration. The skeletal muscles are attached to bone and are responsible for movement. The tendons attach muscle to bone and help transmit force from muscle to bone. Ligaments attach bone to bone and stabilize joints.
The motor system consists of the brain, the spinal cord, and the muscles. The spinal cord is a long bundle of nerve cells that runs from the brain down through the vertebrae in the spine. The spinal cord is responsible for transmitting signals between different parts of your body by sending electrical impulses via neurons along motor pathways. This system controls most voluntary movements involved in everyday life, such as reaching and grasping. The brain interprets information from the somatosensory system and coordinates signals to different muscle groups through the spinal cord via motor pathways.
Assignment Activity 6: Describe the cortical organization, the limbic system, the hypothalamus, vision, hearing speech, and language.
The cortical organization is responsible for processing information from the five senses: sight, hearing, speech, smell, and taste. The limbic system is responsible for emotional responses to stimuli, and the hypothalamus controls the body’s internal environment (temperature, hunger, thirst).
Vision is processed in the occipital cortex at the back of the brain, hearing speech is processed in the temporal cortex on either side of the head just above the ears, and language is processed in a specific area of Broca’s cortex located on the left side of the brain.
Hearing speech and language is processed in the temporal cortex. This is a region on either side of the head just above the ears responsible for processing both auditory information (sounds) and written or spoken words. In order to process hearing speech, the brain must be able to distinguish between different sounds and assign specific meaning to each sound.
Language is one of the most complex human abilities. Humans use language for communication, to express thoughts and feelings, and to create connections with other people. Language includes both spoken words (phonology) and written words (orthography).
Assignment Activity 7: Identify neuroanatomical structures on models, prosecuted specimens, histological images, medical images, and gross anatomy specimens.
There are a number of neuroanatomical structures that can be identified on models, prosecuted specimens, histologic images, and medical images. Some of the more commonly identified structures include the brainstem, cerebellum, hypothalamus, hippocampus, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Each structure has a unique set of functions that contribute to overall neurological function.
For example, the brainstem is responsible for controlling essential body functions such as breathing and heartbeat, while the cerebellum coordinates movement and balance. The hypothalamus regulates daily activities such as eating and drinking, and the hippocampus is responsible for forming memories. The thalamus acts as a relay station for sensory information, and the basal ganglia play a role in the movement.
There are also unique neuroanatomical structures that can be identified on gross anatomy specimens. For example, the six cranial nerves originating from the brainstem (CN I-CN VI) and spinal cord (CNS I-S2), the vertebral column, and individual bones of the skull can be identified on a skeleton. The major organs of the body can also be identified, such as the heart and kidneys.
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