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FS6209 Ice cream Science and Technology UCC Assignment Sample Ireland

FS6209 Ice Cream Science and Technology, a fascinating course offered by the University of Cape Coast (UCC) in Ghana. Ice cream is a beloved treat that has been enjoyed by people all over the world for centuries. But have you ever wondered about the science behind this frozen dessert? This course delves into the complex and diverse field of ice cream production, exploring the scientific principles, ingredients, and processing techniques involved in creating this delicious treat.

Throughout the course, you will learn about the fundamental concepts of ice cream science and technology, including the physical and chemical properties of ice cream ingredients, the principles of ice crystal formation, and the role of emulsifiers, stabilizers, and sweeteners in ice cream formulation. You will also learn about the different types of ice cream products, such as sorbet, gelato, and soft serve, and how they differ from traditional ice cream.

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In this section, we will provide some assignment activities. These are:

Assignment Activity 1: Develop ice cream and frozen dessert formulations and make appropriate ingredient selection.


Developing ice cream and frozen dessert formulations requires careful consideration of ingredients and their ratios to achieve the desired texture, flavor, and stability. Here are some general guidelines for developing formulations and ingredient selection:

  1. Fat: The amount and type of fat used will significantly affect the texture and mouthfeel of the final product. Most ice cream formulations use dairy fat from milk or cream, but non-dairy alternatives like coconut oil can also be used. Higher fat content will result in a creamier and richer product.
  2. Sugar: Sugar not only adds sweetness but also helps to control the freezing point and texture of the ice cream. It’s essential to balance the sweetness with other flavors and ingredients in the formulation.
  3. Milk solids: Milk solids are a source of protein and help to create a smooth, stable texture in ice cream. They can be added in the form of skim milk powder or condensed milk.
  4. Emulsifiers and stabilizers: These ingredients help to keep the fat and water in the ice cream emulsified, preventing ice crystals from forming and ensuring a smooth texture. Common emulsifiers and stabilizers include lecithin, guar gum, carrageenan, and xanthan gum.
  5. Flavorings: The possibilities for flavorings are endless, and the type and amount used will depend on the desired flavor profile. Common flavorings include vanilla, chocolate, fruit purees, coffee, and nut pastes.
  6. Inclusions: Inclusions like nuts, chocolate chips, and fruit pieces add texture and flavor to the ice cream. It’s essential to consider the size and type of inclusions to ensure they don’t affect the texture of the ice cream negatively.

Here’s a simple ice cream recipe to demonstrate the ingredient selection process:

Vanilla Ice Cream:


  • 500 ml heavy cream
  • 500 ml whole milk
  • 200 g granulated sugar
  • 1 tsp vanilla extract
  • 1 tsp lecithin (emulsifier)
  • Pinch of salt


  1. In a saucepan, combine the milk and cream and heat over medium heat until just simmering.
  2. Meanwhile, in a mixing bowl, whisk together the sugar, salt, and lecithin.
  3. Slowly pour the hot milk mixture into the sugar mixture, whisking constantly to combine.
  4. Stir in the vanilla extract.
  5. Chill the mixture in the refrigerator for at least 2 hours or until completely cold.
  6. Churn the mixture in an ice cream maker according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
  7. Transfer the churned ice cream to a container and freeze for at least 2 hours or until firm.

Assignment Activity 2: Describe mix processing and freezing equipment rquirements and apply knowledge to the manufacturing of ice cream and frozen desserts.

Mix processing and freezing equipment are critical components in the manufacturing of ice cream and other frozen desserts. These machines are designed to efficiently mix and freeze the ingredients to create a consistent, high-quality product.

Mix processing equipment is used to blend the ingredients of the ice cream mix, which typically includes milk, cream, sugar, and stabilizers. The equipment must have the ability to heat and cool the mix, as well as provide agitation to ensure that the ingredients are thoroughly mixed. The mix must be homogenous, free of lumps, and have the desired fat content, solids content, and sugar content.

Freezing equipment is used to freeze the ice cream mix and incorporate air to create a smooth, creamy texture. The two main types of freezing equipment are batch freezers and continuous freezers. Batch freezers are typically used for small-scale production and are designed to freeze the mix in small batches. Continuous freezers, on the other hand, are used for large-scale production and are designed to freeze the mix in a continuous process.

In both types of freezers, the mix is pumped into the machine and frozen using a refrigeration system. As the mix freezes, air is incorporated into the mixture through a process known as overrun. The overrun level, which is the amount of air incorporated into the mix, is an important factor in the texture and flavor of the finished product. Typically, ice cream has an overrun of 100% to 120%, while premium ice creams may have lower overruns of 20% to 50%.

In addition to mix processing and freezing equipment, ice cream and frozen dessert manufacturers also require packaging equipment to package the finished product. This equipment must be capable of filling containers with the correct amount of ice cream, as well as applying lids or other closures.

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Assignment Activity 3: Describe food safety requirements and apply appropriate sanitation and hygiene measures to the production of ice cream and frozen desserts.


Food safety requirements are critical for the production of ice cream and frozen desserts. These requirements are put in place to ensure that the products are safe for human consumption and do not cause any harm or illness.

To produce safe ice cream and frozen desserts, sanitation and hygiene measures must be followed. Here are some important steps to take:

  1. Clean and sanitize all surfaces: All surfaces, including equipment, utensils, and work surfaces, should be cleaned and sanitized before use to prevent the spread of bacteria and other pathogens. Use hot water and soap to clean, followed by a sanitizer.
  2. Wash hands: All workers must wash their hands before handling any food products. Hands should be washed with warm water and soap for at least 20 seconds.
  3. Use pasteurized dairy products: Use pasteurized milk, cream, and other dairy products to eliminate the risk of harmful bacteria.
  4. Control temperature: It’s crucial to maintain the right temperature during the production of ice cream and frozen desserts. Keep the temperature below 4°C while storing the ingredients and the finished product.
  5. Prevent cross-contamination: Cross-contamination is a significant concern in food production. Ensure that raw ingredients are stored separately from finished products to prevent the transfer of bacteria and pathogens.
  6. Proper storage: Store the finished product at the correct temperature to ensure that it stays fresh and safe for consumption. Frozen desserts should be stored in a freezer at -18°C or below.
  7. Labeling: Ensure that the labeling of the product is clear and accurate, including the ingredients, allergen information, and expiry date.

Following these sanitation and hygiene measures will help ensure the safety of your ice cream and frozen dessert products. Remember to regularly review and update your food safety protocols to ensure that they remain current and effective.

Assignment Activity 4: Describe the root causes of ice cream quality defects and apply appropriate remedies for the production of high-quality ice cream and frozen desserts.

There are several root causes of ice cream quality defects that can impact the texture, flavor, and overall quality of the final product. Some of the most common quality defects and their potential remedies are as follows:

  1. Ice crystals: Ice crystals can form in ice cream when it is not churned or frozen properly, leading to a grainy texture. To prevent ice crystal formation, make sure to churn the ice cream thoroughly and freeze it at a consistent temperature. Additionally, using ingredients with a lower water content, such as cream or milk powder, can help prevent ice crystal formation.
  2. Grainy texture: A grainy texture can occur when ice cream ingredients are not properly blended, leading to an uneven distribution of ingredients. To prevent a grainy texture, ensure that all ingredients are mixed together thoroughly before churning.
  3. Too hard or too soft: Ice cream that is too hard or too soft can be the result of improper freezing. To prevent this, make sure the ice cream is frozen at the appropriate temperature and for the appropriate amount of time. Additionally, adding ingredients like sugar or alcohol can help to prevent ice cream from becoming too hard.
  4. Lack of flavor: A lack of flavor can occur when not enough flavoring ingredients are added, or if the flavoring ingredients are not high-quality. To prevent this, use high-quality flavoring ingredients and be sure to add enough to achieve the desired flavor.
  5. Melting too quickly: Ice cream that melts too quickly can be the result of a high water content or too much air incorporated during churning. To prevent this, use ingredients with a lower water content, such as cream or milk powder, and ensure that the ice cream is churned at the appropriate speed and for the appropriate amount of time.

By paying close attention to these common quality defects and taking appropriate remedial actions, producers can ensure that their ice cream and frozen desserts are of high quality and consistently delicious.

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