Physical and Learning Disabilities Types Essay Sample
This sample is written to highlight upon the physical and learning disabilities types in children and adults. We will broadly discuss about the various types of physical and intellectual disabilities of a child and it’s symptoms through which we could identify the same.
Physical and learning disabilities in children could be due to many factors. It could be a genetic disorder or any developmental disorder that might take place in the growing years of a person.
First we will discuss about physical disability in children specially and the signs of such disability.
Physical Disabilities of children and adults and it’s types
Physical disability can cause temporary or a permanent physical impairment of physical body part of a person. This impairment could be due to any genetic disorder, critical illness and injuries to any body part.
Physical disability can be a cogenital issue or a serious motor impairment due to genetics, growth disorder, arthritis etc. It includes non development of bones, muscle mass strength, joints and nervous system. This condition may include –
- Lack of motor skills
- State of paralysis of body
- Impairment of physical use of hands or legs.
Types of Physical Disabilities
(1) Brain Injury
This form of physical ailment can be caused post birth mostly. It can damage or cause injury to the brain as a result of usage of drugs, lack of oxygen, infection, stroke or cancer etc. This can majorly effect the sensory abilities, personality and learning ability of a person including some physical changes.
(2) Cystic Fibrosis
It is mostly a genetic condition which may affect the digestive, reproductive and respiratory system of a person. This can cause sinus, diabetes, diarrhoea, poor growth and liver damage etc.
(3) Spinal Cord injury
When there is a lack of flow of oxygen and blood from the body to the spinal cord it creates pressure on the spinal cord leading to it’s injury. It can cause loss of function and mobility in the upper or lower part of the body nay leading to permanent or temporary paralysis.
Arthritis, accidents, blood clots, stroke etc could be the reason of such injury. It can affect the sensory ability, bladder system and respiratory organs.
(4) Dystrophy in muscles
Such condition could lead to difficulty in walking, breating and swallow problems, organ and heart problems, joint motion restriction etc.
It is a neurological condition that may be caused due to brain stroke, injuries, cancer, abnormalities, genetic disorder, infection etc. It can cause seizure attacks.
It is a genetic disorder of physical growth of a person. An average height of 4 feet is achieved by a dwarf person. Some body parts could be disproportionate in size and structure than rest of the body parts. It may lead to delay in motor skills and not a learning disability.
Symptoms of Physical Disabilities
- There is a poor coordination of physical part of body of a child with the other objects in the immediate environment.
- There is a disproportionate size of a physical body part like not straight legs or hands etc.
- Such children usually fall off from beds, stairs and other places and has no physical control over their body. Poor balance of overall body.
- They have a rigid muscle tone and resists bending knees or sitting in a particular posture.
- Has trouble releasing toys or objects voluntarily while playing. They need to be forced to leave toys.
Learning Disabilities of children and adults and it’s types
Children or adults with learning disabilities are slightly different in their intellectual level as they perceive things in a different manner. The perception of any skill or knowledge is different from rest of the normal people.
Learning disabilities may include problems related to speaking, reading, reasoning, maths, problem solving etc. Such children may require special needs assistance for learning disabilities in such case.
Types of Learning or Intellectual Disabilities
It is a language comprehension problem which a child faces while trying to grasp words, letters, phrases of a language. Such children with disability has a problem in understanding speech, vocabulary skills and fluency in language. They may face problems while organizing and arrangement of phrases and sentences in an understandable manner.
(2) Dyscalculia (maths problems)
Children with this disability will have problem in understanding even simple equations and mathematical problems. They face problem in logical reasoning, application of theory and equation based problem, memory, sequencing, counting and time telling.
(3) Dysgraphia (writing)
Such children face expression of speech problem while writing, framing of phrases and paragraphs, poor handwriting, grammatical errors, no organization of thoughts while writing and no accuracy in writing.
(4) Dyspraxia (Motor Skills)
Problems with physical movement in a synchronized and coordinated manner to achieve a certain task. Walking, cutting, jumping, running etc. There is no coordination between brain and body part while doing a task.
(5) Aphasia / Dysphasia (language and communication problems)
There is an inability to comprehend and understand language, parts of speech, and figure of speech. There is no fluency while speaking language, problem in communication, difficulty in understanding meaning of words etc.
(6) Other Disorders
ADHD – It may not be a disability but may cause interruption while learning process. It causes problems in focus, staying calm and staying organized by taking instructions.
Autism – In this condition, there might be a trouble in communication, learning skills, eye contact or creating new friendships.
Symptoms of Learning Disorder / Disabilities
- They have trouble in correct pronounciation, wrong choice of words, poor command over language and vocabulory while conversing in a language.
- Faces difficulty in locating roads, directions etc.
- Difficulty in apprehension of even simple english words, maths problems and numbers.
- They are slow learners of new skills and knowledge.
- Avoids writing, reading and lack in both the skills.
- Trouble following the command of the teachers and class discussions and debates.
- Mostly unorganised and messy.
- Bad and messy handwriting.
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