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PM312 Applied pharmacology Assignment Sample NUI Galway Ireland

PM312 Applied pharmacology course introduces students to the basic concepts of pharmacology and their application to clinical practice. Applied pharmacology encompasses the study of how drugs interact with biological systems at the cellular and subcellular levels to produce their pharmacological effects.

The course will cover topics such as drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion; mechanisms of drug action; drug-receptor interactions; and pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. In addition, the course will cover the clinical use of drugs, including indications and contraindications, dosage and administration, adverse reactions, and drug interactions.

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In this section, we are describing some assigned tasks. These are:

Assignment Task 1: Describe and critically discuss advanced principles and concepts of ligand-receptor binding.

Ligand-receptor binding is a process by which a chemical substance binds to a specific receptor on the surface of a cell. The binding of a ligand to its receptor can trigger a variety of cellular responses, depending on the type of receptor and the nature of the ligand.

Ligands can be small molecules, such as hormones or neurotransmitters, or larger molecules, such as proteins or carbohydrates. Receptors can be located on the surface of cells or inside cells. The binding of a ligand to its receptor can activate or inhibit the function of the receptor.

The strength of the binding between a ligand and its receptor is determined by the affinity of the binding site on the receptor for the ligand. The affinity of a binding site is the strength of the attraction between the ligand and the binding site.

The binding of a ligand to its receptor can also affect the number of receptors on the cell surface. This process is called up-regulation or down-regulation of receptors. Up-regulation occurs when the binding of a ligand to its receptor increases the number of receptors on the cell surface. Down-regulation occurs when the binding of a ligand to its receptor decreases the number of receptors on the cell surface.

The binding of a ligand to its receptor can also affect the activity of enzymes inside the cell. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the cell. The activity of an enzyme can be increased or decreased by the binding of a ligand to its receptor.

The binding of a ligand to its receptor can also affect the transport of molecules across the cell membrane. The cell membrane is a selective barrier that controls the movement of molecules into and out of cells. The binding of a ligand to its receptor can increase or decrease the transport of molecules across the cell membrane.

The binding of a ligand to its receptor can also affect the activity of genes. Genes are segments of DNA that encode proteins. The activity of a gene can be increased or decreased by the binding of a ligand to its receptor.

Thus, the binding of a ligand to its receptor can produce a variety of cellular responses, depending on the type of receptor and the nature of the ligand.

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Assignment Task 2: Describe and critically discuss advanced principles and concepts of pharmacokinetics.

Pharmacokinetics is the study of the movement of drugs through the body. The main pharmacokinetic processes are absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.

  • Absorption is the process by which a drug is taken up by the body. Drugs can be absorbed through the skin, mucous membranes, and gastrointestinal tract. The rate of absorption depends on the route of administration and the chemical properties of the drug.
  • Distribution is the process by which a drug moves from the site of administration to its target tissues. The distribution of a drug is determined by its chemical properties, the distribution of its binding proteins, and the blood flow to its target tissues.
  • Metabolism is the process by which a drug is broken down by the body. Drugs are metabolized in the liver by enzymes. The rate of metabolism depends on the chemical properties of the drug and the activity of the enzymes.
  • Excretion is the process by which a drug is eliminated from the body. Drugs are excreted in the urine, faeces, and sweat. The rate of excretion depends on the chemical properties of the drug and the kidney function.

These are the basic processes of pharmacokinetics. However, there are some advanced principles and concepts that are important to understand.

  1. First, the volume of distribution (Vd) is a measure of the distribution of a drug in the body. The Vd is the amount of drug in the body divided by the concentration of the drug in the plasma. The Vd reflects the distribution of the drug between the plasma and the tissues.
  2. Second, the elimination half-life (t1/2) is a measure of the time it takes for a drug to be eliminated from the body. The t1/2 is the time it takes for the concentration of the drug in the plasma to be reduced by half.
  3. Third, the clearance (Cl) is a measure of the rate at which a drug is eliminated from the body. The Cl is the volume of plasma that is cleared of the drug per unit time. The Cl reflects the combined processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.
  4. Fourth, bioavailability is a measure of the amount of drug that is available to the target tissues. The bioavailability is the ratio of the area under the curve (AUC) to the dose. The AUC is a measure of the exposure of the body to the drug.
  5. Fifth, steady-state is the state in which the concentrations of the drug in the plasma and tissues are constant. The steady-state is reached when the rate of drug administration is equal to the rate of drug elimination.

These are some of the advanced principles and concepts of pharmacokinetics. Understanding these principles and concepts is important for understanding how drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted by the body.

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Assignment Task 3: Describe how radioligand binding assays are performed, analyze data from saturation and competition binding experiments using Excel and Graphpad Prism and critically interpret such data.

Radioligand binding assays are performed by incubating a radiolabeled ligand with cells expressing the receptor of interest. The amount of ligand bound to the receptor is then determined by measuring the radioactivity in the cell lysate.

Saturation binding experiments are performed to determine the number of receptors present in a cell. In a saturation binding experiment, increasing amounts of radiolabeled ligand are incubated with the cells expressing the receptor of interest. The amount of ligand bound to the receptor is then determined by measuring the radioactivity in the cell lysate.

Competition binding experiments are performed to determine the affinity of a ligand for a receptor. In a competition binding experiment, a fixed amount of radiolabeled ligand is incubated with the cells expressing the receptor of interest. Increasing amounts of unlabeled ligand are then added to the mixture. The amount of radiolabeled ligand bound to the receptor is then determined by measuring the radioactivity in the cell lysate.

Data from saturation and competition binding experiments are analyzed using Excel and Graphpad Prism. Saturation binding data are fit to a one-site binding model. Competition binding data are fit to a two-site binding model. The affinity of the ligand for the receptor is then determined from the fitted curves.

To critically interpret data from saturation and competition binding experiments, it is important to consider the quality of the data. The data should be reproducible and the fits should be good. The fitted curves should be similar to those expected for the binding model. The affinity of the ligand for the receptor should be reasonable.

Assignment Task 4: Prepare and deliver an oral presentation of a published original research manuscript and critically analyze and interpret research manuscripts.

Original research manuscripts are published in scientific journals. To prepare an oral presentation of a published original research manuscript, it is important to read the manuscript carefully and identify the major points. It is also important to understand the methods used in the study and the results of the study. After identifying the major points, it is then important to develop an outline for the presentation. The outline should be organized logically and should include all of the major points. After developing the outline, it is then important to practice the presentation. The practice should be done in front of an audience if possible.

When delivering an oral presentation, it is important to be well-prepared and to deliver the presentation clearly and concisely. The presentation should be organized logically and should flow smoothly. It is also important to use visual aids to help illustrate the points made in the presentation.

When critiquing research manuscripts, it is important to consider the quality of the research. The research should be well-designed and the results should be reproducible. The conclusions drawn from the research should be supported by the data. The manuscript should also be well-written and free of errors.

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The assignment sample discussed above is based on PM312 Applied pharmacology. This sample is only an example of how to write an assignment on pharmacology. You should not use this sample as your work. You can find several free assignment samples like PM310 Drugs and Disease II Assignment Sample NUIG, PM311 Introduction to Toxicology Assignment Sample NUIG, and much more on our website.

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