PS415 Perception, Attention, Performance Assignment Sample NUIG Ireland
PS415 Perception, Attention, Performance is a course offered at the National University in Ireland, Galway. This course provides an introduction to the scientific study of perception, attention, and performance. Students will learn about the major theories and findings in these domains, as well as research methods used in this area of psychology. The course will also cover applied topics such as human factors and ergonomics.
PS415 is an excellent course for students interested in pursuing a career in psychology or a related field. The course provides a strong foundation in the scientific study of perception, attention, and performance. Students who complete this course will be prepared to pursue advanced studies in these areas.
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In this section, we are describing some assigned activities. These are:
Assignment Activity 1: Be conversant with Physiological and psychological models of sensory and perceptual function.
The physiological and psychological models of sensory and perceptual function are two quite different approaches to understanding how we process incoming information from the world around us. The physiological model focuses on the physical mechanisms involved in sensorial input and perception, while the psychological model emphasizes the cognitive and interpretive processes that take place once information has been registered by our senses.
There are several different theories within each of these approaches, but they all share some common features. For example, both types of models typically assume that we register information through our senses and that this information is then processed in some way before we are consciously aware of it. The exact nature of the processing involved varies from model to model, but it generally includes some combination of filtering, interpretation, and decision-making.
The physiological model is based on the idea that our senses are like input devices that take in information from the world around us and convert it into electrical signals that our brains can understand. This model focuses on the physical structures and processes involved in this process, such as the anatomy of the eye and ear, the physiology of the nervous system, and the biochemistry of sensory transduction.
Assignment Activity 2: Be conversant with Theories of Perception.
Theories of perception are concerned with the nature of perceptual experience and the way that we process sensory information. There are several different theories, each with its strengths and weaknesses. In this article, we’ll briefly overview some of the most prominent theories of perception.
Gestalt theory emphasizes that we perceive objects as unified wholes, rather than as collections of individual parts. This theory can help to explain why we tend to see faces in inanimate objects, for example. However, gestalt theory does not account for all aspects of perceptual experiences, such as optical illusions.
The contextualist approach holds that our perceptions are shaped by the context in which they occur. For instance, when seeing an object in a dimly lit room, we might perceive it as being darker than it is. Contextualist theories can help to explain why our perceptions can be so easily influenced by factors such as lighting and background noise.
The ecological approach takes into account the fact that we are constantly bombarded with sensory information from the world around us. This approach emphasizes the role of attention in perceptual experiences, holding that we can only attend to a limited amount of information at any given time. This theory can help to explain why we sometimes fail to notice obvious changes in our environment, such as a new painting on the wall.
The final theory that we’ll consider is the representational approach. This approach holds that our perceptions are based on mental representations of the world around us. This theory can help to explain why we often see things that are not there, such as mirages.
Each of these theories has its strengths and weaknesses, but they all contribute to our understanding of perceptual experience. In general, it is thought that no single theory can account for all aspects of perception. Instead, a combination of different theories is usually needed to provide a complete explanation.
Assignment Activity 3: Be conversant with Theories of Attention.
Theories of attention can be divided into two categories: bottom-up and top-down. Bottom-up theories of attention are driven by input from the environment, while top-down theories are driven by higher-level cognitive processes.
One of the most prominent bottom-up theories of attention is the spotlight theory, which posits that attention operates like a spotlight, with only a small region of space being attended to at any given moment. This theory has been largely discredited, however, due to findings that show that people can attend to more than one thing at a time.
Top-down theories of attention are typically based on models of information processing in the brain. One common model is the three-stage model proposed by Broadbent (1958). This model holds that information is first filtered at an early stage of processing, with only certain types of information being passed on to the next stage. This filtering process is thought to be based on factors such as relevance and saliency. In the second stage, the remaining information is then analyzed in more detail, and finally, a decision is made about what to do with the information.
Other top-down theories of attention have been proposed, such as the attentional scope theory (Allport, 1995) and the limited-capacity theory (Kahneman, 1973). These theories differ in their details, but they all share the basic idea that attention is a limited resource that is used to process information efficiently.
In general, it is thought that both bottom-up and top-down processes are involved in attention. For instance, when looking for a friend in a crowded room, we might use bottom-up processes to scan the room for familiar faces, while also using top-down processes to search for people who match our mental representation of our friend.
Assignment Activity 4: Be conversant with The Anatomy and Physiology of Sensory Systems in Vision and Audition.
The human body is equipped with a variety of different sensory systems, each of which is specialized for detecting different types of information from the environment.
The visual system is responsible for processing information from our eyes, while the auditory system processes information from our ears. Both of these systems are relatively well understood, thanks to a great deal of research that has been conducted over the years.
The visual system is made up of several different parts, including the eyes, the optic nerves, and the brain. The eyes are responsible for capturing light from the environment and converting it into electrical signals. These signals are then sent to the brain via the optic nerves. The brain is responsible for processing these signals and creating our visual experience of the world.
The auditory system is also made up of several different parts, including the ears, the auditory nerves, and the brain. The ears are responsible for capturing sound waves from the environment and converting them into electrical signals. These signals are then sent to the brain via the auditory nerves. The brain is responsible for processing these signals and creating our auditory experience of the world.
The two systems are similar in many ways, but there are also some important differences. For instance, the visual system is much better at processing certain types of information than the auditory system. For example, the visual system can process information about the location of objects in space, while the auditory system is not. This is why we can see objects that are far away from us, but we cannot hear them.
Assignment Activity 5: Be able to draft and present scientific materials using a conference poster.
Conference posters are a great way to present your scientific findings to other scientists in an easy-to-digest format. Here are some tips on how to create a conference poster:
- Choose an easy-to-read font, such as Arial or Times New Roman.
- Use large headings and subheadings to help organize your information.
- Make sure all of your graphics and figures are clearly labelled and legible.
- Stick to a simple colour scheme, such as black and white or shades of blue or green.
- Use plenty of space between different elements on the poster so that it’s easy to read at a glance.
- Be sure to proofread your poster before printing it out or sending it off to be printed.
Creating a conference poster can be a lot of work, but it’s also a great way to share your scientific findings with other scientists. Follow these tips and you’ll be sure to create a poster that will make a big impact at your next conference.
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