Psychodynamic theory of Freud and Development of Children Essay Sample
Psychodynamic theory was first introduced by Sigmund Freud to study the human behaviour and development. This essay will primarily focus upon the psychodynamic theory of Freud and it’s impact on development of children at social and psychological level.
Psychoanytical theory is used interchangeably with this theory of Psychodynamic. It includes both therapy for patients and study of psychological theory of human behaviour. This therapy is used to treat the social anxiety and depression in patients. Freud had different views in the field of psychopathology & development of children.
He believed that people have generally three key aspects in their personality – ego, ID and superego. Personality of a child is shaped in the first few years of his development. It depends upon the care provided by the carers and their level of interaction with the child.
Freud believed that mental health issues arises as a result of not accepting the reality of life. He believed that the early childhood experiences plays a vital role in development of behaviour and personality of an adult.
Stages of Psychoanalytic theory of development in children
The psychological and the social development in children takes place in these five psychosexual stages of children. It includes – oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital stages. It considers sexual behaviour or factor to play a part in the developmental stages of children.
Psychosexual stages of development in children
- Oral stage (0-1 year) is the first stage of psychosexual development of children. The first year of life of a child is in infancy and he creates a habit of chewing on things that are brought close to his mouth. It brings an infant oral gratification, comfort and stimulation in doing so.
Psychologically the infant is all Id. Baic essentials are being provided by the carers to the infants and it includes – food, water, affection, comfort etc. If such basic needs are not fulfilled by the carers or they neglect the infants then such children may not develop from this stage. They remain stuck in this stage and create a habit of munching and chewing on objects when they grow up.
Consistent supply of nutrition and care must be given to the infants otherwise it may adversely affect the personality of them. When neglected infants grow up into adults they create a consistent eating, drinking and smoking habits. It gives them a sense of comfort and security according to them.
- Anal Stage (2-3 years) is the second stage of development of children in which toilet training is an important aspect. Teaching children to sanitise, maintaining hygiene and self control can help them to grow up to be a responsible adult.
Self control can enhance their ego but they should not be restricted much of their independence. Whenever children feel they are being controlled and their freedom is being controlled they feel fearful.
Teaching children self control during this training helps them to become organised, responsible and hygienic as a person. If caregivers neglect him he might grow up to be irresponsible, disorganized and unhygienic. This will also impact social life and development of a child and as an adult.
- Phallic Stage (3-5 years) is the third stage of a child’s social and biological development. Freud believed that boys are mostly sexually attracted to their mothers but fathers come in between them. Initially they get angry and on realising the strength of their fathers but later they try to become like the personality posessed by their fathers.
They develop a Oedipus complex which includes fear, anxiety of castration and anger. If this issue is not resolved at an earlier stage then they might get stuck in this stage. On growing up might face problems in having an intimate relationship with women. But on resolving the issue they might like to compete with other men and develop a masculine personality.
Therapists beleived that girls have a complicated issue of believing that they had penis and it was cut off. They have Electra Complex in which they want to marry their fathers by getting rid of their mothers.
- Latent Stage (6-11 years) is the stage of child social development in which his mind shifts it’s focus to develop friendships. Socially interactive carers and parents helps them to enhance their social skills and psychological behaviour. It helps them to boost their self confidence and self esteem by being communicative and social with others.
Child with no social skill or interaction becomes a loner, lacks in other skills aswell and have a social anxiety behaviour.
- Genital Stage (12 -18 years) is the stage of adolescence and adulthood stage. In this stage the sexual drives, hunger drives, sexual arousal is all high as there are changes in the biological factors and hormonal balance of children. Adolescent psychology helps in understanding the nature and self control required to control the sexual urges. So, they redirect the sexual energy into a productive activity and it strengthens the ego. They have reason to manage their sexual urges and drives.
Criticisms of Freud’s Psychodynamic theory
- This theory has been found to be a sexist by nature. Females are considered to be less psychologically well off than men. They are told to accept less position in the society than men. It focuses on masculinity and promotes patriarchy in the society which is unacceptable.
- It highlights the darker side of human nature and no focus on the positive aspect.
- Theory is difficult to be measured as it has no specific standards of measurement. Theory is not scientifically tested and proven and prediction about defense mechanism can be untrue.
- This theory is not supported by any empirical research, surveys or experimental data.
- Sexuality is not the only factor foe shaping the personality of a person. Other factors have not even being considered by Freud.
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Sample essay written above is based on psychodynamic and psychoanytical theory of Freud which impacts the development of children. It mentions the stages of development of a child psychologically, socially and sexually along with criticisms of Freud’s theory.
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Social development of children, Child psychological behaviour,psychopathology, child and adolcense psychological needs, adult needs, sexual behaviour in children, theories of child development and stages of child development etc are few topics that can be read in reference with this essay.
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