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AN2102 Histology of the Fundamental Tissues Assignment Example NUI Galway Ireland

AN2102 Histology of the Fundamental Tissues course is designed to provide students with a basic understanding of the structure and function of tissues. The course will explore the histology of the following tissues: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nerve. Students will learn how each tissue functions in the body and how they are arranged in organ systems. This course is perfect for students who are interested in pursuing a career in medicine or health sciences. We will also describe the functions of each type of tissue and discuss some common diseases that can affect these tissues.

Assignment Task 1: Explain how cells can assemble into the fundamental issues and explain the role and function of each of the fundamental issues.

Cells can assemble into the fundamental tissues by a process known as cell differentiation. This is when certain cells in the body become specialized to perform specific functions. The process of cell differentiation is regulated by several factors, including transcription factors and signaling molecules. Differentiation can occur in response to cues from the surrounding environment, such as the presence of certain growth factors or extracellular matrix proteins. Once a cell has differentiated, it typically remains in that state for the rest of its life.

The four fundamental tissues are epithelium, connective tissue, muscle tissue, and nerve tissue. Each of these tissues has a unique role and function.

Epithelial tissue

Epithelial tissue is a type of tissue that covers the surface of the body and forms the lining of internal organs. Epithelial tissue consists of closely packed cells that are held together by cell junctions. The three main types of epithelial tissue are:

  1. Squamous epithelium, which consists of flat, scale-like cells
  2. Cuboidal epithelium, which consists of cube-shaped cells
  3. Columnar epithelium, which consists of tall, column-shaped cells

The function of epithelial tissue is to protect the body from infection and injury. Epithelial tissue also helps to regulate the movement of materials across the cell surface and aids in the elimination of waste products from the body.

Connective tissue

Connective tissue is a type of tissue that connects, supports, and protects the different organs and structures of the body. Connective tissue consists of a variety of cell types, including fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells. The three main types of connective tissue are:

  1. Loose connective tissue, is a type of connective tissue that contains a lot of loose, jelly-like material
  2. Dense connective tissue is a type of connective tissue that contains a lot of densely packed fibers
  3. Elastic connective tissue is a type of connective tissue that contains a lot of elastic fibers

The function of connective tissue is to support and protect the different organs and structures of the body. Connective tissue also helps to regulate the movement of materials through the body and aids in the repair of damaged tissues.

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Muscle tissue

Muscle tissue is a type of tissue that contracts to move. Muscle tissue consists of long, cylindrical cells called muscle fibers. Muscle fibers are composed of many smaller units called myofibrils. The three main types of muscle tissue are:

  1. Skeletal muscle tissue is a type of muscle tissue that is attached to the bones and produces movement at the joints
  2. Cardiac muscle tissue is a type of muscle tissue that is found in the heart and is responsible for the contraction of the heart muscle
  3. Smooth muscle tissue, is a type of muscle tissue that is found in the walls of the intestines and other internal organs and moves the body

The function of muscle tissue is to move. Muscle tissue also helps to regulate the movement of materials through the body and aids in the maintenance of body posture.

Nerve tissue

Nerve tissue is a type of tissue that consists of nerve cells or neurons. Neurons are long, thin cells that transmit electrical signals throughout the body. Nerve tissue also contains supportive cells called glial cells. The three main types of nerve tissue are:

  1. Sensory nerve tissue is a type of nerve tissue that is responsible for the detection of stimuli
  2. Motor nerve tissue is a type of nerve tissue that is responsible for the movement of muscles
  3. Interneural tissue is a type of nerve tissue that connects the sensory and motor nerves

The function of nerve tissue is to transmit electrical signals throughout the body. Nerve tissue also helps to regulate the activities of the body’s organs and systems.

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Assignment Activity 2: Describe the microscopic structure of epithelial, connective tissues, cartilage, bone, muscle, nerve, vascular and lymphatic tissues and explain how the structure contributes to the function of the tissue:

The epithelium is composed of closely packed cells that form a continuous sheet with little intercellular space. The cell membranes are attached by adhesion molecules, and the cells are connected by gap junctions. The apical surface of the epithelium faces an external environment, while the basal surface is attached to a basement membrane.

Connective tissue is composed of cells suspended in an extracellular matrix. The matrix consists of fibers (collagen, elastin, and reticular) and ground substance (glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans). Cells include fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, adipocytes, and leukocytes. Connective tissue provides support and protection for the body.

Cartilage is composed of cells called chondrocytes that are embedded in a matrix of collagen and proteoglycan fibers. The matrix is stiff and produces a slippery surface that allows joints to move smoothly. Cartilage provides support and cushioning for the body.

Bone is composed of cells called osteocytes that are embedded in a matrix of collagen and calcium phosphate. The matrix is hard and provides support for the body.

Muscle tissue is composed of cells called muscle fibers that are arranged in parallel bundles. Muscle fibers are composed of many smaller units called myofibrils. Myofibrils are made up of proteins that contract to move.

Nerve tissue is composed of cells called neurons that are arranged in a network. Neurons are long, thin cells that transmit electrical signals throughout the body. Nerve tissue also contains supportive cells called glial cells.

Vascular tissue is composed of cells called endothelial cells that line the blood vessels and heart. Vascular tissue also contains cells called pericytes and fibroblasts that help to maintain the function of the blood vessels.

Lymphatic tissue is composed of cells called lymphocytes that are responsible for the defense of the body. Lymphatic tissue also contains cells called macrophages that remove debris from the tissues.

The structure of tissue contributes to its function by allowing the cells within that tissue to interact with each other and exchange molecules. The extracellular matrix also provides a supportive structure that allows the tissue to withstand stress. The arrangement of cells in tissues also allows them to contract and produce movement. The structure of the tissue is determined by the arrangement of its cells and the type of matrix between them. The cells in a tissue can be organized into sheets, chords, clusters, or individual cells. The matrix can be composed of proteins, carbohydrates, or lipids, and it provides support and nutrients to the cells. Additionally, the matrix helps to guide cell growth and differentiation.

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Assignment Activity 3: Recognize the microscopic appearance of epithelial, connective tissues, cartilage, bone, muscle, nerve, vascular and lymphatic tissues and differentiate between them:

Epithelial tissue is composed of cells that form a continuous sheet, with little space between them. The cells are joined together by special junctions called tight junctions, which prevent anything from passing between the cells. Epithelial tissue covers the body’s surface, lines cavities, and ducts, and forms the glands.

Connective tissue is made up of cells that are dispersed throughout an extracellular matrix. The matrix may be fluid (as in blood) or solid (as in bone). Connective tissue supports bind together and protects organs and tissues. It includes fibrous tissues such as tendons and ligaments, as well as non-fibrous tissues such as adipose (fat) tissue and cartilage.

Cartilage is a type of connective tissue that is composed of cells called chondrocytes that are embedded in a matrix of collagen and proteoglycan fibers. The matrix is stiff and produces a slippery surface that allows joints to move smoothly. Cartilage provides support and cushioning for the body.

Bone is a type of connective tissue that is composed of cells called osteocytes that are embedded in a matrix of collagen and calcium phosphate. The matrix is hard and provides support for the body.

Muscle tissue is composed of cells that can contract. This contraction is what allows us to move our skeletal muscles. Under a microscope, muscle cells appear long and cylindrical. They are usually arranged in bundles and are interconnected by proteins that allow them to slide past one another when they contract.

Nerve tissue is composed of cells that transmit electrical signals throughout our bodies. Under a microscope, nerve cells appear long and thin with many branching extensions. These extensions allow the nerve cell to connect with other cells so that it can transmit its signal.

Vascular tissue is composed of cells that make up our blood vessels. Under a microscope, these cells appear round and have a thin outer layer that covers the inner cell. The inner cell contains the blood vessel’s lumen or opening. Vascular tissue also contains cells called pericytes and fibroblasts that help to maintain the function of the blood vessels.

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