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AN3105 Gross Anatomy I: Upper limb, back, thoracic, and anterior abdominal walls Assignment Example NUI Galway Ireland

AN3105 Gross Anatomy I course is an important prerequisite for students interested in pursuing a career in medicine. The course covers the structure and function of the human body and requires students to have a strong understanding of biology and chemistry.

Gross anatomy is the study of large, visible structures of the body. In this series of modules, we’ll be taking a closer look at some of these structures in different regions of the body. We’ll be focusing on the upper limb, back, thoracic, and anterior abdominal walls. We’ll be discussing their anatomical features and common pathologies.

Assignment Activity 1: Describe the bones, joints, muscles, fasciae, membranes, blood and lymphatic vessels, and nerves of the upper limb, back, thoracic and anterior abdominal walls.

The bones of the upper limb, back, thoracic, and anterior abdominal walls include the clavicle, scapula, ribcage, sternum, and vertebrae.

The joints of the upper limb, back, thoracic, and anterior abdominal walls include the shoulder joint, elbow joint, wrist joint, and hip joint.

The muscles of the upper limb, back, thoracic, and anterior abdominal walls include the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, and erector spinae.

The fasciae of the upper limb, back, thoracic, and anterior abdominal walls include the superficial fascia, deep fascia, and aponeuroses.

The membranes of the upper limb, back, thoracic, and anterior abdominal walls include the skin, superficial fascia, deep fascia, and peritoneum.

The blood and lymphatic vessels of the upper limb, back, thoracic, and anterior abdominal walls include the brachial artery, brachial vein, vena cava, and azygos vein.

The nerves of the upper limb, back, thoracic, and anterior abdominal walls include the median nerve, radial nerve, ulnar nerve, and femoral nerve.

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Assignment Activity 2: Understand the functional anatomy of the upper limb, back, thoracic and anterior abdominal walls, and demonstrate the ability to integrate, extend and critically analyse that knowledge.

The upper limb is responsible for performing various tasks such as grasping, pulling, and pushing. The muscles of the upper limb work together to produce these movements. The bones, joints, and ligaments of the upper limb provide stability and support. The blood vessels and nerves of the upper limb provide nutrients and sensation.

The back is responsible for supporting the weight of the upper body and protecting the spinal cord. The muscles of the back work together to maintain posture and produce movement.

The thoracic cavity is responsible for housing and protecting the heart and lungs. The muscles of the thoracic cavity work together to generate the force needed for breathing.

The anterior abdominal wall is responsible for protecting the organs of the abdomen. The muscles of the anterior abdominal wall work together to generate the force needed for digestion and elimination.

Assignment Activity 3: Demonstrate the ability to competently dissect the upper limb, back, thoracic and anterior abdominal walls on a cadaver, and to record, document and report the dissection.

The upper limb, back, thoracic, and anterior abdominal walls can be dissected using the following steps:

  1. Make an incision along the length of the arm from the shoulder to the wrist.
  2. Cut through the skin and superficial fascia.
  3. Identify and dissect the muscles of the upper limb.
  4. Cut through the deep fascia and identify and dissect the bones, joints, and ligaments of the upper limb.
  5. Cut through the peritoneum and identify and dissect the organs of the abdomen.
  6. Record, document, and report the dissection.

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Assignment Activity 4: Be able to identify and answer questions about anatomical structures, regions, and relations of the upper limb, back, thoracic and anterior abdominal walls on cadavers, prosected specimens, skeletons and bones, images and models.

Anatomical structures

  • The clavicle is a long, thin bone that forms the anterior part of the shoulder girdle. It articulates with the scapula at the shoulder joint and the sternum at the manubrium.
  • The scapula is a large, flat bone that forms the posterior part of the shoulder girdle. It articulates with the clavicle at the acromioclavicular joint and the humerus at the glenohumeral joint.
  • The humerus is a long bone that forms the upper arm. It articulates with the scapula at the glenohumeral joint and the radius and ulna at the elbow joint.
  • The radius is a long bone that forms the lateral part of the forearm. It articulates with the humerus at the elbow joint and the ulna at the radioulnar joint.
  • The ulna is a long bone that forms the medial part of the forearm. It articulates with the humerus at the elbow joint and the radius at the radioulnar joint.
  • The carpals are small bones that form the wrist. They articulate with the radius and ulna at the radiocarpal joint.
  • The metacarpals are long bones that form the hand. They articulate with the carpals at the carpometacarpal joints.
  • The phalanges are small bones that form the fingers. They articulate with the metacarpals at the metacarpophalangeal joints and with each other at the interphalangeal joints.

Regions

  • The shoulder region is the area of the body between the neck and the arm. It includes the shoulder girdle, which is made up of the clavicle and scapula, and the upper arm, which is made up of the humerus.
  • The back region is the area of the body between the neck and the waist. It includes the thoracic spine, the lumbar spine, and the sacrum.
  • The thoracic region is the area of the body between the neck and the abdomen. It includes the thoracic spine, the ribs, and the sternum.
  • The abdominal region is the area of the body between the thorax and the pelvis. It includes the abdomen, the pelvis, and the perineum.
  • The pelvic region is the area of the body between the abdomen and the legs. It includes the pelvic girdle, which is made up of the two hip bones, and the lower limbs, which are made up of the thigh, leg, and foot.

Relations

  • The shoulder joint is a synovial joint that forms the articulation between the clavicle and the scapula. It is a gliding joint that allows the shoulder to move in all directions.
  • The elbow joint is a synovial joint that forms the articulation between the humerus and the radius and ulna. It is a hinge joint that allows the elbow to move in one plane only.
  • The wrist joint is a synovial joint that forms the articulation between the carpals and the radius and ulna. It is a pivot joint that allows the wrist to move in all directions.
  • The hip joint is a synovial joint that forms the articulation between the hip bone and the femur. It is a ball-and-socket joint that allows the hip to move in all directions.
  • The knee joint is a synovial joint that forms the articulation between the femur and the tibia and the fibula. It is a hinge joint that allows the knee to move in one plane only.
  • The ankle joint is a synovial joint that forms the articulation between the tibia and fibula and the talus. It is a hinge joint that allows the ankle to move in one plane only.
  • The metatarsophalangeal joints are synovial joints that form the articulations between the metatarsals and the phalanges. They are gliding joints that allow the toes to move in all directions.
  • The interphalangeal joints are synovial joints that form the articulations between the phalanges. They are hinge joints that allow the fingers to move in one plane only.

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