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AN4101 Gross Anatomy III: Posterior abdominal wall, Retroperitoneal space, Pelvis, Peri Assignment Example NUI Galway Ireland

AN4101 Gross Anatomy III course will begin with a study of the posterior abdominal wall, including the retroperitoneal space and the pelvis. We will then move on to the perineum and the lower limb. The focus will be on gross anatomy, but we will also cover some basic embryology and neuroanatomy where relevant.

Assignment Activity 1: Describe the skeletal elements and corresponding joints of the posterior abdominal wall, pelvis, and lower limb.

The posterior abdominal wall is made up of the vertebral column, the ribs, and the muscles and fascia that attach to them. The main joints of the posterior abdominal wall are the intervertebral joints, the sacroiliac joints, and the hip joints.

The pelvis is made up of the hip bones, which are joined at the sacroiliac joints. The hip bones are attached to the vertebral column by the sacrum and the femurs by the hip joints.

The lower limb is made up of the femur, tibia, fibula, and foot. The main joints of the lower limb are the knee joint, ankle joint, and hip joint.

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Assignment Activity 2: Describe the origin, insertion, shape, actions, blood supply, innervation, and topographic relations of the muscles of the posterior abdominal wall, pelvis, and lower limb.

The muscles of the posterior abdominal wall include the erector spinae, latissimus dorsi, and quadratus lumborum. The erector spinae originate from the vertebral column and insert into the ribs. They are responsible for extending and laterally flexing the trunk. The latissimus dorsi originate from the spine and ribs and are inserted into the humerus. They are responsible for the adduction and extension of the arm. The quadratus lumborum originates from the iliac crest and is inserted into the vertebral column and ribs. They are responsible for lateral flexion of the trunk and rotation of the pelvis.

The muscles of the pelvis include the iliac, psoas major, and gluteus maximus. The iliac originates from the iliac bone and is inserted into the femur. They are responsible for the flexion of the hip joint. The psoas major originates from the lumbar vertebrae and insert into the femur. They are responsible for the flexion of the hip joint. The gluteus maximus originate from the posterior pelvis and is inserted into the femur. They are responsible for the extension and external rotation of the hip joint.

The muscles of the lower limb include the quadriceps femoris, hamstrings, and gastrocnemius. The quadriceps femoris originate from the pelvis and insert into the tibia. They are responsible for the extension of the knee joint. The hamstrings originate from the ischial tuberosity and are inserted into the tibia. They are responsible for flexion of the knee joint. The gastrocnemius originates from the posterior femur and is inserted into the calcaneus. They are responsible for the plantar flexion of the ankle joint.

Assignment Activity 3: Demonstrate the ability to competently dissect the posterior abdominal wall, retroperitoneal space, pelvis, perineum, and lower limb, and, record, document,t and report on the dissection.

The dissection of the posterior abdominal wall will begin with a midline incision. The erector spinae, latissimus dorsi, and quadratus lumborum muscles will be exposed. The vertebral column, ribs, and sacrum will be visible. The intervertebral joints, sacroiliac joints, and hip joints will be palpated.

The dissection of the pelvis will begin with an incision along the iliac crest. The iliac, psoas major and gluteus maximus muscles will be exposed. The hip bones, sacrum, and femurs will be visible. The hip joints will be palpated.

The dissection of the lower limb will begin with an incision along the femur. The quadriceps femoris, hamstrings, and gastrocnemius muscles will be exposed. The tibia, fibula, and foot will be visible. The knee joint, ankle joint, and the hip joint will be palpated.

After completing the dissection, the specimen will be photographed and labelled. The photograph will be annotated with the visible structures. The label will identify the specimen as the posterior abdominal wall, pelvis, or lower limb.

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Assignment Activity 4: Write a concise and accurate description of anatomical structures, regions, and relations of the posterior abdominal wall, retroperitoneal space, pelvis, perineum, and lower limb using appropriate anatomical terminology.

The posterior abdominal wall is divided into four quadrants by two imaginary lines drawn vertically and horizontally through the umbilicus. The right and left upper quadrants are bounded by the horizontal line and the right and left lower quadrants are bounded by the vertical line.

The retroperitoneal space is located behind the peritoneum and contains the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, and inferior vena cava.

The pelvis is a large, bowl-shaped structure that sits on the hip bones. It contains the bladder, uterus, and prostate gland in women, and the bladder and prostate gland in men.

The perineum is located between the anus and the scrotum in men, and between the anus and the vulva in women. It contains the anal sphincter muscle and the urethra.

The lower limb is divided into the thigh, leg, and foot. The thigh is bounded by the hip joint and contains the femur. The leg is bounded by the knee joint and contains the tibia and fibula. The foot is bounded by the ankle joint and contains the calcaneus.

Assignment Activity 5: Identify anatomical structures of the posterior abdominal wall, retroperitoneal space, pelvis, perineum, and lower limb on cadavers, prosections, skeletons, and images.

Anatomical structures of the posterior abdominal wall include the erector spinae, latissimus dorsi, and quadratus lumborum muscles. The vertebral column, ribs, and sacrum are visible. The intervertebral joints, sacroiliac joints, and hip joints are palpated.

Anatomical structures of the ureteropelvic space include the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, and inferior vena cava.

Anatomical structures of the pelvis include the iliac, psoas major, and gluteus maximus muscles. The hip bones, sacrum, and femurs are visible. The hip joints are palpated.

Anatomical structures of the perineum include the anal sphincter muscle and the urethra.

Anatomical structures of the lower limb include the quadriceps femoris, hamstrings, and gastrocnemius muscles. The tibia, fibula, and foot are visible. The knee joint, ankle joint, and hip joint are palpated.

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Assignment Activity 6: Acquire sound knowledge and understanding of the Functional Anatomy of structures of the posterior abdominal wall, retroperitoneal space, pelvis, perineum, and lower limb.

The posterior abdominal wall muscles are responsible for the extension of the vertebral column, the rotation of the trunk, and the stabilization of the lumbar spine.

The retroperitoneal space contains the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, and inferior vena cava. It is separated from the peritoneal cavity by the peritoneum.

The pelvis is a large, bowl-shaped structure that sits on the hip bones. It contains the bladder, uterus, and prostate gland in women, and the bladder and prostate gland in men. The pelvic floor muscles support these organs and provide sexual function.

The perineum is located between the anus and the scrotum in men, and between the anus and the vulva in women. It contains the anal sphincter muscle and the urethra. The perineal muscles support these organs and provide sexual function.

The lower limb is divided into the thigh, leg, and foot. The thigh is bounded by the hip joint and contains the femur. The leg is bounded by the knee joint and contains the tibia and fibula. The foot is bounded by the ankle joint and contains the calcaneus. The muscles of the lower limb enable movement of the limbs and support the body in an upright posture.

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