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MN155 Organisational Behaviour And Management Assignment Example Maynooth University Ireland

Every individual spends most of their life in the organisation. No one escapes the work world completely, and everyone is constantly managing – from taking care of themselves every day to organizing others for group activities that will help them achieve organizational goals.

The aim of this module is for students to develop a better understanding and appreciation of the different human-related elements that influence organizational behaviour, leading them towards an improved comprehension of how and why people behave in organizations. It also covers what shapes their actions within these structures while exploring how management practices may direct or change behaviours toward achieving goals.

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Assessment Answers of Organisational Behaviour And Management (MN155)

In this course, there are many types of assignments given to students like
a group project, learner record, work experience diary, personal reflection, skills demonstration, structure report writing, presentation, and other solutions are given by us.

On successful completion of the module, students should be able to:

Assignment Task 1: Define and describe/explain classic and contemporary organisational behaviour (OB) and management theories and concepts

Organisational Behaviour is the study of human responses to the organisational environment. It is the application of psychological principles to the workplace. It covers individual, group and organisational dynamics. Management is the process of getting things done through people. It includes planning, organising, leading and controlling activities to achieve desired outcomes.

Combining these two terms, Organisational Behaviour and Management (OB&M) is the study of human behaviour in organisations. OB&M helps us understand how to become more effective managers by focusing on people. It involves understanding both individual needs and team dynamics. It also involves gaining insight into why people do what they do (at work, at home and socially).

There are different theories and concepts of organisational behaviour and management. They are divided into classic theories and contemporary theories. Classic OB&M studies need to be understood in the context of their time. Contemporary OB&M studies draw on insights from both traditional and more recent research methodologies, including experiments, statistical & mathematical modelling, qualitative case studies, surveys & questionnaires, ethnography etc.

Assignment Task 2: Classic theories of organisational behaviour and management are as follows:

Theory X and Theory Y

Douglas McGregor’s is a well-known theorist who suggested two basic approaches to management, i.e., ‘Theory X’ and ‘Theory Y.’

In the ‘X’ theory, managers believe that people are naturally lazy and need to be controlled through tight rules and regulations. This theory is based on the belief that human beings are basically selfish and only work for their own self-interest.

In the ‘Y’ theory, managers believe that people are creative and have the potential to contribute to the organization if they are given the opportunity. They also think that employees should be trusted and given responsibility.

Goal-Setting Theory

Edwin Locke and Gary Latham’s goal-setting theory suggests that specific, difficult goals lead to higher performance than easy or do your best goals. This behavioural theory is based on the idea of expectancy motivation (i.e., an individual’s belief about the likelihood of performing a certain task successfully based on their ability and effort).

Expectancy Theory

Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory links personal motivation to the anticipated results of an action. This behavioural theory explains that people are more likely to behave in a certain way if they expect positive outcomes (rewards) for their actions. Expectancy theory is based on three factors:

  • Instrumentality (the belief that a particular action will lead to the desired outcome)
  • Valence (the attractiveness of the outcomes associated with a particular behaviour)
  • Expectancy (the individual’s belief about their ability to perform a task)

Hawthorne Effect

The Hawthorne Effect is a term coined by Henry A. Landsberger in his review of the famous Hawthorne studies, which were conducted by Elton Mayo and Fritz J. Roethlisberger between 1927 and 1932.

The basis of this effect is that people change their behaviour when they’re being studied (observed). This leads to more accurate measures of productivity rather than self-reported productivity measures.

Contemporary theories of organisational behaviour and management are as follows:

Social Influence Theory

This theory, developed by Robert Cialdini, explains how people are influenced by the social norms around them. It focuses on six key principles of social influence:

  • Reciprocity (the principle of returning favours)
  • Commitment and consistency (the desire to be consistent with our past behaviour)
  • Social proof (the principle of following the behaviour of other people in order to determine correct behaviour)
  • Liking (the principle that we comply with requests made by people whom we like)
  • Authority (the principle that we comply with authority figures)
  • Scarcity (i.e., a limited number of a relevant item that is available only for a short time)

Theory of Planned Behaviour

This theory, developed by Icek Ajzen, explains how people’s intentions to behave in a certain way are determined by their attitudes (opinions), subjective norms (the views of important people in our lives), and perceived behavioural control (an individual’s belief about their ability to perform a behaviour).

Expectancy-value Theories of Motivation

In this theory, motivation is based on an interaction between the person’s needs, values and expectations. We are motivated to behave in a particular way when we expect that it will help us attain valued outcomes. In addition, we need to have certain personal characteristics (e.g., self-efficacy) in order to be able to undertake the desired behaviour.

Leader-Member Exchange Theory

This theory, developed by Bruce Avolio and Bernard Bass, explains how exchange relationships between leaders and followers affect motivation and performance. In this theory, the leader-member Exchange (LME) is a dyadic (two-person) exchange process that involves the exchange of resources between leaders and followers. The quality of the LME is determined by the degree to which the leader provides valued resources to followers and the degree to which followers utilize these resources to achieve the leader’s goals.

Cognitive Evaluation Theory

This theory, developed by Edward Deci and Richard Ryan, proposes that people will be motivated to perform a task because of the consequences they expect from it. In this theory, intrinsic motivation is based on satisfaction of four universal psychological needs:

  • Competence (beliefs that we have the ability to carry out the desired behaviour)
  • Autonomy (the desire to control one’s actions)
  • Relatedness (the need to feel connected to others)
  • Integrity (the need to behave in a consistent manner with our values)

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Assignment Task 3: Apply classic and contemporary OB and management theories and concepts to different workplace contexts/to practical scenarios

When it comes to the workplace, there are a number of different theories and concepts that can be applied in order to better understand employee motivation and behaviour. Some of these theories include the Social Influence Theory, the Theory of Planned Behaviour, and the Expectancy-Value Theories of Motivation. In addition, managers can use the Leader-Member Exchange Theory of Cognitive Evaluation Theory to better understand how employees are motivated in the workplace. For example, if managers want to increase their team’s productivity, they could utilise the Expectancy-Value Theories of Motivation theory. They could do this by attaching rewards to individual tasks for each team member (e.g., bonus numbers).

The Theory of Planned Behaviour theory explains how people’s intentions to behave in a certain way are determined by their attitudes (opinions), perceived behavioural control (an individual’s belief about their ability to perform a behaviour), and norms (the social pressure to comply with the expectations of others). Finally, the Expectancy-Value Theories of Motivation theory states that people are motivated to behave in a particular way when they expect that it will help them attain valued outcomes. In addition, the Expectancy Theory states that people are motivated to behave in a particular way when they believe that their performance of that behaviour will lead to valued outcomes. Finally, the Goal-Setting Theory states that individuals are more likely to be motivated if they have specific goals and deadlines. For example, managers can set specific team targets for employees so that each employee has a goal to try and achieve.

Assignment Task 4: Critically assess if/how different OB and management theories and concepts may improve individual, group and organisational outcomes

There are a number of different OB and management theories and concepts that can be applied in order to improve individual, group, and organisational outcomes. The Social Influence Theory states that people are influenced by the social norms of their group, while the Theory of Planned Behaviour explains how people’s intentions to behave in a certain way are determined by their attitudes, perceived behavioural control, and norms. In addition, the Expectancy-Value Theories of Motivation states that people are motivated to behave in a particular way when they expect that it will help them attain valued outcomes. Finally, the Goal-Setting Theory states that individuals are more likely to be motivated if they have specific goals and deadlines. For example, if managers want to increase their team’s productivity, they could apply the Expectancy-Value Theories of Motivation by attaching rewards (e.g., bonuses) to individual tasks for each member of their team.

Assignment Task 5: Identify contemporary topics, issues and challenges in work organisations

There are a number of different contemporary topics, issues, and challenges that managers face in work organisations. These include the changing nature of work, the increase in job insecurity, the rise of the gig economy, and the growth of self-employment. In addition, the increasing use of technology in the workplace is also a challenge that managers face. For example, the use of social media can impact employee productivity, and the use of automation can lead to job losses. Finally, the increasing popularity of flexible working arrangements can also be a challenge for managers. For example, they may need to find ways to ensure that employees are still productive when they are working remotely.

Assignment Task 6: Compare and contrast different OB theories/concepts/tools and their application in different organisational settings

Different OB theories/concepts/tools can be applied in different organisational settings. For example, the Social Influence Theory is useful when managers want to increase their team’s productivity because it states that people are influenced by the social norms of their group, and so managers could implement this theory by increasing co-worker cooperation. In addition, the Expectancy-Value Theories of Motivation can be applied when managers want to increase individual, group, and organisational productivity by attaching rewards (e.g., bonuses) to individual tasks for each team member.

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The assignment sample discussed above is based on MN155 Organisational Behaviour And Management.

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