PM209 Applied Concepts in Pharmacology Assignment Sample NUIG Ireland
PM209 Applied Concepts in Pharmacology module a variety of topics in pharmacology, including the mechanisms of drug action, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, drug metabolism and disposition, adverse drug reactions, and therapeutic drug monitoring. In addition, students learn about important classes of drugs used to treat specific diseases.
This module is a great introduction to the field of pharmacology for students who are interested in pursuing a career in pharmacy or another biomedical field. The module will give you a strong foundation in the basics of how drugs work in the body and how to use this information to prescribe and monitor medications safely and effectively.
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In this section, we are describing some assigned tasks. These are:
Assignment Task 1: Describe the process of adrenergic and cholinergic neurotransmission including receptors and transporters.
Adrenergic and cholinergic neurotransmission are two of the main types of neurotransmission in the body. Adrenergic transmission occurs when the sympathetic nervous system is activated and results in the release of adrenaline from the adrenal glands. This increased level of adrenaline causes an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration. Cholinergic transmission occurs when the parasympathetic nervous system is activated and results in the release of acetylcholine from the neurons. Acetylcholine then binds to muscarinic receptors or nicotinic receptors, which leads to a decrease in heart rate and blood pressure.
There are two types of receptors for each type of neurotransmitter: inhibitory and excitatory. Inhibitory receptors are activated by the neurotransmitter and result in a decrease in the activity of the target cell. Excitatory receptors are activated by the neurotransmitter and increase the activity of the target cell.
There are also two types of transporters: reuptake transporters and enzymes. Reuptake transporters remove the neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft and store it in the presynaptic neuron. Enzymes break down the neurotransmitter so that it can no longer bind to receptors.
Assignment Task 2: Relate drug mechanism of action to autonomic neurotransmission.
Drugs acting on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) can have wide-ranging effects, depending on which particular part of that system they act upon. Many drugs used in clinical practice target the sympathetic or parasympathetic divisions of the ANS, with the goal of either stimulating or inhibiting those systems’ activity. Either way, the result is a change in some physiologic functions under autonomic control.
The sympathetic division of the ANS is responsible for mediating many of the body’s “fight-or-flight” responses – that is, those reactions to a perceived danger that serve to increase heart rate and blood pressure, divert blood flow away from digestive organs and towards skeletal muscles, etc. Stimulation of this system results in all of these effects, while inhibition has the opposite effects. The parasympathetic division of the ANS is responsible for mediating “rest-and-digest” or “feed-and-breed” functions – that is, those functions that occur when the body is at rest or digesting food. Inhibition of this system results in increased heart rate and blood pressure, while stimulation has the opposite effects.
Many drugs used in clinical practice target either the sympathetic or parasympathetic divisions of the ANS to produce their desired effect. For example, beta-blockers are a class of drugs that act by blocking the beta-adrenergic receptors, which are found in the sympathetic nervous system. By doing this, they prevent the binding of the neurotransmitter adrenaline to those receptors, and thereby decrease the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. This results in a decrease in heart rate and blood pressure.
Assignment Task 3: Describe how new molecular entities are discovered and developed into drug candidates for human clinical trials.
A new molecular entity (NME) is first discovered in a laboratory setting. The molecule is then screened for activity against a variety of targets, including receptors, enzymes, and proteins that are associated with diseases.
If the molecule demonstrates promising activity against one or more disease targets, it is then further evaluated for its potential to become a drug candidate. This evaluation includes assessing the molecule’s safety and efficacy in animals (usual rodents), as well as its chemical properties and manufacturing feasibility.
If the molecule passes all of these tests, it is then considered for human clinical trials. These trials are typically conducted in three phases to determine the molecule’s safety and efficacy in humans. If the molecule proves to be safe and effective, it may then be approved for use by the general public.
The first step in discovering a new molecular entity (NME) is to identify a potential target for the molecule. This target could be a receptor, an enzyme, or a protein that is associated with a disease. Once a target is identified, the next step is to screen the molecule for activity against that target.
Assignment Task 4: Summarize the clinical trial process including adverse effects.
The clinical trial process is a systematic way of testing new drugs or treatments to see if they are safe and effective. Before a drug can be tested in people, it must go through animal testing to see how it affects different animals. If the drug seems safe, it is then tested in a small group of people (Phase I) to see if it is tolerated and to find out the right dose. If the drug is tolerated and the right dose is found, it is then tested in a larger group of people (Phase II) to see if it is effective.
If the drug is found to be effective, it goes through more testing (Phase III) to make sure that the results are reproducible and that the side effects are not too severe. Once the drug is approved by the FDA, it can be made available to the public.
The clinical trial process is a system of testing in which new drugs or treatments are evaluated for safety and efficacy. First, a potential target for the molecule is identified. The molecule is then screened for activity against that target using animal models.
If the molecule demonstrates promising activity against the target, it is then further evaluated for its potential to become a drug candidate. This evaluation includes assessing the molecule’s safety and efficacy in animals, as well as its chemical properties and manufacturing feasibility.
Assignment Task 5: Derive dose-response curves for agonists and antagonists in the ANS.
The dose-response curves for agonists and antagonists in the ANS can be derived by measuring the response of a tissue or organ to different concentrations of a drug. The response is then plotted on a graph, with the dose (in terms of concentration) on the x-axis and the response on the y-axis.
The dose-response curve for an agonist will be a sigmoid curve, with the maximum response at the highest dose and diminishing responses at lower doses. The dose-response curve for an antagonist will be a reverse bell curve, with no response at low doses and increasing responses as the dose is increased.
Assignment Task 6: Interpret clinical trial data.
The interpretation of clinical trial data can be complicated. It is important to first understand the study design and then to carefully examine the results.
Study designs can vary, and different designs are better suited for answering different questions. For example, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is considered the gold standard for assessing the efficacy of a treatment, while a cohort study can be used to identify risk factors for disease.
Once you have an understanding of the study design, it is important to read the results section very carefully. This section will typically list the baseline characteristics of the study population, as well as the outcome measures and results. It is also important to look at the confidence intervals (CIs) associated with each result; a CI is a measure of the variability of the results and can give you an idea of how precise the results are.
When interpreting clinical trial data, it is important to understand the study design and to carefully examine the results. The results section will typically list the baseline characteristics of the study population, as well as the outcome measures and results. It is also important to look at the confidence intervals (CIs) associated with each result; a CI is a measure of the variability of the results and can give you an idea of how precise the results are.
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