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Biomaterial: Drug-Eluting Stents for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) Essay Sample 

This essay sample shall highlight the Biomaterial: Drug-Eluting Stents (DESs) with coronary angioplasty that is being used for heart patients or coronary artery disease (CAD). It mentions the benefits and disadvantages of the Drug-Eluting Stents (DESs) and the limitations of Bare Metal Stents (BMS).

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‘Biomaterial’ is either synthetic or natural that is being used for healing people and restoring their health and function after an injury or disease. It is structured and engineered in such a way that it can be used for medical purposes in the biological systems.

It is in the form of a therapy that is used for the purpose of repairing, replacing tissues, and treating the body to become functional.

Biomaterial science plays a vital role in the field of medical science and healthcare. The following are the different types of biomaterial:-

  • Bone plates
  • Bone cement
  • Heart valves
  • Dental implants
  • Intraocular lenses (IOLS) for eye surgery
  • Joint replacements
  • Ligament and tendon replacement.

Drug-Eluting Stent (DES) with coronary angioplasty for coronary patients 

Any heart ailment involves its muscles, arteries, and valves which causes heart-related functional issues and disease. It creates hindrance in the oxygen-carrying and circulation through the blood vessels and arteries.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a common heart ailment that is caused due to plaque buildup in the inner surface of arteries. Blockage in the arteries is called ‘atherosclerosis.’

The stent was first used to reduce the risk of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) to open the narrowed arteries. An inflated balloon is used for the compression of instructed plaque which enlarges the inner wall. It is used for the delivery of drugs in the narrow part of the artery.

The cardiovascular stent is a modern replacement of heart surgery that was being introduced with the balloon angioplasty. The therapy of antiplatelet can also be used with drug-eluting stents.

The stent is tubular implants to give stenotic arteries or any nonvascular strength unless the closure is completely removed. There are two types of stents one that is self-expanding and the other is the balloon-expandable stents.

In comparison to a bare-metal stent, drug-eluting stents are better and much effective and is a modern biomaterial replacement for patients with coronary artery diseases.

Irrespective of the many benefits of drug-eluting stent it has failed to show any long-term clinical use or health benefit as it includes permanent polymeric coating materials, metal ions due to erosion and degradation of metals, nonoptimal drug-releasing condition, and degrading products of polymers.

To have better and safe clinical outcomes it is better to explore other strategies by optimizing drug-eluting stent designs that can overcome the condition of inflammation, sub-acute stent thrombosis (ST), and delay in endothelialization.

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Advantages of using Drug-Eluting Stent (DES) for heart or coronary artery patients 

  • Drug-Eluting Stents (DESs) are the metal insertion that is used as an additional artificial intravascular mechanical support for heart patients.

The Balloon expandable stents are designed to provide any mechanical support to restrict the vessel recoil and to prevent any acute occlusion.

  •  Drug-Eluting Stents are human-created clinical implantations that have high delivery success which leads to low complications of perioperative and thrombosis.

It can easily be controlled through the use of anticoagulants like heparin or warfarin which are present on its surfaces to prevent any bleeding complications.

  • DESs also promote good blood flow to the heart and relieves chest pain by helping to prevent any plaque buildup. It also helps in lowering the risk of a heart attack.
  • It also reduces the risk of restenosis and repeats revascularisation when compared to the bare metal stent (BMS).

Disadvantages of using Drug-Eluting Stent (DES) for heart or coronary artery patients 

  • Drug-eluting stents (DESs) results in injury to the vessel walls and disruption of the endothelium.
  • DES releases anti-proliferative agents such as sirolimus and paclitaxel which on increasing causes delay in the process of healing.
  • It can cause damage to the kidneys due to dye.
  • It can cause scarring and damage to the blood vessels.
  • DES can even increase the risk of infection that is caused due to the dyes and synthetic material which can damage the tissues and may even cause death in the rarest condition.

Limitations of using Bare Metal Stents (BMSs) 

  • Bare Metal Stents (BMSs) have a metal surface that uses metal alloys that are not good and can promote thrombosis due to their surface properties.
  • An acute thrombosis can turn into a stent thrombosis which can abrupt the vessel and even cause death.
  • Bare Metal Stents (BMSs) can also cause neointimal hyperplasia or restenosis after the risk of thrombosis is being abated. It leads to an uncontrolled human immune response due to damage or disruption in the vessel walls.

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The above-written essay is based on the Drug-Eluting Stents for artery disease and their usage in the medical field.

Medical Terminology and Administration QQI Level 5, Care Skills QQI Level 5, Care Assistant Course QQI Level 5, Healthcare Support QQI Level 5, Certificate in Medical Administration QQI Level 5, Wellbeing students can read this sample to gain professional knowledge on the clinical practice of using Drug-Eluting Stents and various medical terminology.

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