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Down Syndrome Essay Sample Ireland

Down syndrome is a medical condition where the person suffering from the condition has an additional chromosome. Chromosomes are very vital for a living being as they are known to determine the functions and forms of the body.

A baby at the time of its birth is known to have as many as 46 chromosomes. However, in Down syndrome, there is an extra copy of one of these 46 chromosomes.

Down Syndrome Essay Example Ireland

The additional chromosome that is found because of Down syndrome alters the body and brain development of the baby and that can cause physical and mental challenges for the baby.

Common physical attributes of individuals suffering from Down syndrome include small ears, short neck, a flat face, small feet and hands, loose joints, poor muscles, short height in kids and adults.

This essay is on Down syndrome and it helps the audience, readers to comprehend the types of down syndromes that are prevalent, causes and risk factors that are related to the medical condition, the diagnosis, and treatments associated with the medical condition.

Down syndrome types

Down syndrome is a medical condition that is caused by the presence of an extra chromosome in the body. There are as many as 3 types of Down syndrome and they are discussed in this section of the essay.


In this type of Down syndrome, each cell in the body has 3 distinct copies of chromosome 21. Statistics suggest that as many as 95% of the population worldwide with Down syndrome has this type of medical condition.

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Translocation Down syndromes

This type of medical condition happens when there is a part or whole of an extra chromosome 21 is there but is attached to different chromosomes instead of being separate chromosomes. A very small percentage of people suffering from the medical condition is believed to have this type of chromosome.

Mosaic Down syndrome

Individuals suffering from Mosaic Down syndrome are known to have 3 copies of chromosome 21. Other cells of individuals suffering from this type of Down syndrome have only 2 copies of chromosome 21. Understanding reveals that only 2% of the population suffering from Down syndrome globally is known to have this type of Down syndrome. In this context, it is important to mention that patients with this type of Down syndrome have similar features as patients with Down syndrome.

Risk factors and causes of the Down syndrome

Individuals with Down syndrome are known to suffer from developmental and physical challenges. Though it is understood that this medical condition is caused because of the presence of an extra chromosome, however, no one knows why this medical condition occurs and about the factors that cause such types of medical conditions.

In this context, it is important to understand that one factor that enhances the risk of babies suffering from Down syndrome is the age of the mother. It is understood that women who are more than 35 years old show a greater tendency of giving babies suffering from Down syndrome compared to women who become pregnant at a young age.

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Two types of tests are available to spot the medical condition during pregnancy of women. One is the screening test and the other is the diagnostics tests. This section of the essay discusses these two types of tests for the sake of the readers and the audience.

Screening tests

Such tests incorporate blood tests and ultrasounds.  The blood tests determine the various substances that are there in the blood of the mother during pregnancy. Ultrasounds take a photo of the baby when the mother is pregnant. While doing an ultrasound the physicians take special care to check the fluid that is there behind the neck of the baby. If there is extra fluid in the neck region of the baby then it suggests that the baby can suffer from genetic issues. The screening tests determine the risks that are associated with Down syndrome.

Diagnostic Tests

Diagnostic tests are conducted after a proper screening test is performed. Diagnostic tests incorporate the following:-

CVS or Chronic Villus Samplings

It examines the materials that are obtained from the placenta region.


This scrutinizes the amniotic fluid.


This diagnostic test inspects the blood that comes from the mother’s umbilical cord.

The tests that are mentioned above detect the alterations in chromosomes as that would point towards a diagnosis of Down syndrome.


Down syndrome is known to be a lifelong issue for the patients suffering from it. However, some services are offered to kids and babies suffering from the condition to improve their intellectual and physical abilities. These services are aimed at helping kids with Down syndrome to develop physically and psychologically. The services in this regard include physical therapy, speech therapy, and occupational therapy. Kids with Down syndrome also require attention or help at schools.

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