Hans Seyles and Lazarus Theory’s of Stress Essay Sample, Ireland
Hans Selye was a Canadian physician and endocrinologist, and the first to identify and describe stress as a non-specific response of the body to any demand for change. He defined stress as “the non-specific response of the body to any demand upon it.” The concept of stress has been found useful in a wide range of fields, including biology, psychology, anthropology, ecology, sociology, education, and engineering.
Hans Seyle’s theory of stress is one of the most widely accepted theories in the field of psychology. His theory states that stress is the body’s response to any demand placed upon it. This theory has been used to explain a wide variety of physical and mental disorders, and has helped researchers to develop new treatments for these conditions.
Lazarus and Folkman’s stress theory (1984) is developed from Selye’s general adaptation syndrome in that it specifically focuses on psychological stress. Lazarus and Folkman suggest that stress can be thought of as consisting of two elements: a primary appraisal and a secondary appraisal. The primary appraisal consists of an individual’s evaluation of a stressor, and the secondary appraisal consists of an individual’s evaluation of his or her resources to cope with the stressor.
Lazarus and Folkman’s theory of stress proposes that stress is a result of the individual’s appraisal of the situation. This theory has been used to explain how different people can react to the same situation in different ways. It has also been used to develop new treatments for stress-related disorders.
These theories of stress are just two of the many that have been proposed by researchers. While there is still much to learn about stress, these theories have helped to shed light on this complex topic.
Lazarus and Folkman’s theory has been found to be applicable in a wide variety of settings, including work-related stress, caregiving, and chronic illness. The theory has also been used to explain how people cope with majo stressful life events, such as bereavement, divorce, and retirement.
The theory has been found to have good predictive validity, and has been used to develop interventions to reduce stress. For example, a study by Lutgendorf et al. (1998) found that women who were high in secondary appraisal (i.e., who had a positive outlook on their ability to cope with breast cancer) were less likely to experience stress and more likely to have better health outcomes.
Lazarus and Folkman’s theory has been criticized for its lack of focus on the role of emotions in stress and its reliance on self-report measures. However, overall, the theory is considered to be a valuable contribution to the understanding of stress.
In the 1930s, a Polish-American endocrinologist named Hans Seyle developed a theory of stress that has since become one of the most widely accepted explanations for how the body responds to psychological and physical threats. According to Seyle, stress is the body’s non-specific response to any demand placed upon it. This “demand” can come in the form of a physical injury, emotional trauma, or even just the day-to-day demands of modern life.
When we experience stress, our bodies go into “fight-or-flight” mode. This is a primitive survival mechanism that kicks in when we are faced with a threat. The fight-or-flight response is characterized by an increase in heart rate and blood pressure, rapid breathing, and the release of adrenaline and other stress hormones. This response evolved to help us deal with immediate physical threats, but it is not well suited to the chronic stressors of modern life.
The problem with constantly being in a state of fight-or-flight is that it takes a toll on our bodies. Over time, chronic stress can lead to problems such as anxiety, depression, cardiovascular disease, and even premature death. This is where Lazarus’ theory of stress comes in.
In 1966, psychologist Richard Lazarus proposed a theory of stress that addressed some of the shortcomings of Seyle’s original theory. Lazarus argued that it is not just the presence of a stressful event that determines our level of stress; it is also our perception of that event. In other words, two people can experience the same stressful event (e.g., getting laid off from work) but have different reactions to it based on their individual worldviews and coping mechanisms.
Lazarus’ theory has four main components:
1) Primary Appraisal: This is the process by which we determine whether an event is stressful and how much it will affect us.
2) Secondary Appraisal: This is the process by which we evaluate our resources and options for dealing with a stressful event.
3) Coping: This is the actual strategy (or strategies) we use to deal with a stressful event.
4) Reappraisal: This is the process by which we reflect on our experience with a stressful event and modify our appraisal of it accordingly.
Both Seyle’s and Lazarus’ theories of stress are still widely accepted today. While Seyle’s theory focuses on the biological response to stress, Lazarus’ theory emphasizes the role that our perceptions and coping mechanisms play in determining how stressed we feel. Understanding these theories can help us better manage stress in our own lives.
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