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Erikson’s Psychosocial Development in Humans Essay Sample 

This essay sample will focus upon the psychosocial development of children and adults. It will discuss  the eight stages of Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Development of a person and conflicts in these developmental stages. At the end, of this sample we will point out the various criticisms faced by this theory of development.

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Erikson was a ego psychologist who studied psycho social and development theories in people. He stated that how the personality of a child goes into transition as he approaches his adulthood. Social environment and experiences plays a pivotal role in the overall development of people.

Each stage of development of Erikson theory shows the conflicts of people’s psychology. Those who can deal with conflicts can become psychologically stronger and helps them in the long run. People who cannot survive these conflicts either they perish or fail to develop social skills in lifetime.

Sense of competence can impact positively on the behavior and actions of people. If challenges are faced bravely by a person it can help in boosting of the ego strength and quality. If issues are not resolved and managed properly then development of a person will remain inadequate.

Eight stages of Erikson’s psychosocial development of a person 

There are eight stages of psychosocial development of people in the various stages of life. It includes the early years, preschool, school, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adults and later adulthood stages of a person.

First stage of Development Trust v. Mistrust (birth to 1st year) 

This stage of development ranges from birth to the first year. It is the most fundamental principle of child development theory.

‘Trust’ is dependent upon the quality of care given to the child by carers. Basic essentials are provided to the child or toddler in his early years like food, safety, love, affection etc.

If no proper care is given to children at this stage they might have trust issues in their life. Safe, healthy and secured environment must be provided to the children for their growth.

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If caregivers are abusive, or emotionally unavailable it will generate a feeling of mistrust in children. Lack of trust may also create a sense of fear in them. There is a conflict of trust and mistrust on the basis of care and affection that is being provided to them.

Second stage of Development Autonomy v. Shame and Doubt (2 – 3 years) 

It includes early years of childcare setting. Children start doing things at a basic level of understanding. They start making choices and decisions on their own. They require a sense of control and independence to develop their personal skills and autonomy.

Toilet training is considered to be the essential step for physical independence of a child. They start having food preferences and choices in clothes which shows their freedom in their personality.

Lack of independence can cause children shame, self doubt and feeling of guilt.

Third Stage of Development Initiative v. Guilt (3-5years) 

This stage is known as preschool years of a child. Such children needs control and power over their decisions and take initiative in communication. They must be good at social skills but the one who are not good at this skill. They lack in confidence, experiences displeasure and guilt.

Fourth Stage of Development Industry v. Inferiority ( 5- 11 years) 

Children of this age group needs to polish their social abilities and skills. They must be strong in creating healthy social interaction.

Children with success at an exam or excelling in sport activities may get a sense of achievement while the rest will feel an inferiority complex.

Encouragement is the key to success in children, it will boost their confidence and self esteem. While demoralization creates self doubt and weakening of personality in children.

Fifth Stage of Development Identity v. Confusion (12 -18 years) 

This stage of development includes the teenagers. Conflict that is faced by them is the recognition of their personal identity and confusion. Personal identity includes recognising oneself and creating goals in life.

They need independence and control over their lives. Identity includes beliefs, values and behaviour that shapes the personality of a person. Successful completion of this stage helps in creating strong relationships with others.

‘Ego identity’ is important in this stage of development of a person. It changes as we interact daily with different people. It develops our social skills by having new learning experiences and challenges in life.

Sixth Stage of Development Intimacy v. Isolation (19-40 years) 

This is a stage of young adults  psychosocial development and their conflicts. They learn to create positive and initimate relationships with others. Those who fail to develop any close relationship they tend to be more depressed, lonely and isolated.

Seventh Stage of Development Generativity v. Stagnation (40- 65 years) 

These are middle aged adults who build their career and create a family. Strong bond in family, career accomplishments, raising of children and giving values create a feeling of success.

Those who fail to do so may feel no growth in life, stagnation, less productive and engaging.

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Eighth Stage of Development Integrity v. Despair (65 and above years) 

This is a phase of late adulthood and here a person starts reflecting upon his thoughts and life. They’re either happy to know their life accomplishments or regret their past.

Success at this stage help old people to feel a sense of integrity and pride. While failure or regrets of past can make them feel in despair.

Criticisms of Erikson’s psychosocial development theory 

  • The experiences are not certain and they may vary from person to person. Some might feel sense of satisfaction and some may regret on skipping a stage of development.
  • What kind of experiences is not mentioned in this theory specifically.
  • Initially it was the development of only American and European males and not for women.
  • Age range suggested by Erikson may differ and not certain.
  • More attention is given to the early years and infancy and less to the other stages of life. Though it’s a span span theory.
  • Measures to resolve conflicts is not mentioned properly in every stage of development.

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Sample essay is written above is based on Erikson’s psychosocial development of humans and stages of development.

Psychology,Careskills, Childcare, Child Development and QQI Level 6 students can take the help of above sample to write related assignments on this topic. They can hire cheap essay writer to write on Psychology and Human Development assignments.

Child Psychology and other related topics are not so easy to be researched online. Students need expert writer to assist them in writing.

Child Development theories, models of child and adult theories, factors influencing child’s psychology, physical, emotional and cognitive development of children etc are topics in related to this sample.

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