Pain Management of the Sickle Cell Disease Essay Ireland
In the following essay sample we shall highlight and discuss the pain management of sickle cell disease at home, types of pain, symptoms of the sickle cell anemia, the pain management guidelines of this condition.
Sickle cell disease is a group of an inherited disorders in red blood cells that affects the haemoglobin and protein that is responsible for carrying the oxygen in the body.
The red blood cells get blocked in this condition which restricts the blood flow in the body causing serious problems of stroke, pain crisis, and infection. It is a lifelong term disease and only the blood and bone marrow can cure it by reducing the symptoms of this disease.
Symptoms of Sickle Cell Disease
We shall briefly discuss the signs and symptoms of sickle cell disease that may vary from one person to another. Some of the common symptoms of sickle cell disease are:-
Anemia is a condition in which the red blood cells are left in very few numbers and the sickle cells die within ten to twenty days creating a shortage of red blood cells and without it, there is no sufficient supply of oxygen in the body which causes immense fatigueness.
The sickle cells can damage the spleen which can cause the life threatening infection and in such cases the doctors and health carer might give antibiotics and anemia vaccination for fighting against such infection.
When the blood vessels get filled with sickle cells it can damage the retina leading to vision-related problems or loss of sight or rather blindness.
The major symptom of the sickle cell disease is periodic episodes of pain which can be either mild or acute, chronic, moderate or even severe. This pain is developed due to the sickle blood cells and it can be caused in the bones and can even vary in its intensity and time period or duration. Such pain crisis can be managed at home and in case of any severe pain condition the patient needs a hospital stay. The pain can also due to the damaged joint, bone, ulcers, and other reasons.
Delay in the Growth of the Children and Late Puberty
The red blood cells supply the essential nutrients and oxygen in the body of the children for their growth but due to lack of this, it causes slow growth in children and delaying puberty in teenagers.
Pain Management Guidelines of the Sickle Cell Disease
The pain can either be acute or chronic in nature and this should be first evaluated and such pain is usually a result of the (VOC) vaso occlusive crisis. If the pain has originated due to the VOC then an analgesic therapy must be used which can be initiated with the 30 minutes pain relief session before going to the hospital.
The type of pain killer and its dose depends upon the intensity, type of symptoms, and location of the pain along with the history of the dozage that how it has worked previously in the body of such a person in pain. Any pain that range from mild to moderate must be controlled by (NSAIDS) steroidal anti inflammatory drugs and the NSAIDS of the Diclofenac and Ibuprofen are used for the sickle cell patients.
In case of any moderate to severe pain the doze of opioids can be used and for the moderate pain codeine can be used and for the much severe pain the stronger opioid of morphine, methadone, fentanyle, oxymorphone can be used.
The pain must be assessed after every 15 to 30 minutes to understand the condition or status of the patient and opioids can be administered under the skin of the patient to control the pain. Any syringe or needle cannot be pressed into the vein of such a patient as it gets thin.
A patient control analgesia can be recommended by the doctors to the patients who wants to control their own pain and can even add single doses of the painkiller. The respiratory system must be on a regular basis be monitored after administration of the drugs in the body.
Any regular massages, a warm bath, and heat application can also help in the relief of the pain. In case of any chronic pain, massage and muscle relaxation therapy can be used for pain management.
Pain Management of Sickle Cell Disease At Home
Since pain is the inevitable part of this sickle cell disease therefore a pain management plan must be devised to help the person to cope up with the pain and the sickle cell crisis. The pain specialist who is in charge of treating the patient can help him to prepare the “Pain Management Plan” which can include instructions on the way to treat any mild pain at home.
Some of the common instructions given under sickle cell disease pain management plan are:-
- Treatment at home with a specific combination of pain relief and pain killer medicines has been advised by the doctors.
- Drinking a huge amount of fluids and water and avoiding any form of strenous exercise or activity. Plenty of water intake is a must in case of any exercise, sweating, and clearing the urine.
- Keeping the temperature of the body warm as cold temperatures can worsen the condition of such a person.
- Avoiding any dehydration.
- Using a heating pad for the pain swelling and taking a warm bath.
- Reducing or management of stress in life.
The pain can be treated at home with help of pain management skills such as distraction of mind, relaxation, deep breathing, guided imagery, positive self-talk,, etc. One must be completely aware of the medicines that need to be taken care of in case of mild, moderate, and severe pain. The prescription must be used for avoiding the over doze of the medicines.
The Drugs like hydroxyurea or voxalotor can help children and adults in pain and the recent medication is the monoclonal antibody called Crizanbizumale – time (Adakevo). It is the first therapy that can prevent the red blood cells from clumping reducing the VOC.
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