SCAD (Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection) in Pregnancy Essay Sample
The following essay sample work shall highlight the Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection (SCAD) in pregnant women. It shall discuss the condition of SCAD, Symptoms, and factors that may contribute to SCAD condition and various diagnoses of SCAD.
The emergency issues related to the cardiac condition are very rare in the postpartum period of the pregnancy but it is considered to be life-threatening. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection is a disease that affects majorly the female population especially young females even before their pregnancy.
This condition is an important cause of myocardial infarction which affects women with various risks of cardiovascular diseases. It causes myocardial infarction in postpartum and pregnant women.
What is SCAD Condition?
SCAD is a rare condition causing myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac arrest, and even death. It is an epicardial coronary dissection that is not associated with atherosclerosis, iatrogenic injury, or trauma which is a common cause of MI in pregnant women.
It commonly occurs when a tear gets formed in the blood vessel in the heart which can slow or block down the flow of blood to the heart causing abnormalities in the rhythm of the heart. It affects middle-aged women and men.
SCAD occurs when the inner layer of the artery gets separated from its outer layers it can easily pool the blood in the area between the layers. The blood which is trapped between the layers can form easily a blood clot called a hematoma.
It makes the heart muscles weak and the flow of the blood gets blocked which causes a heart attack. People with this condition have a higher tendency of getting a heart attack or failure.
Symptoms of SCAD
Some of the most prominent signs and symptoms of SCAD condition are:-
- Severe pain in the area of the chest.
- Difficulty in breathing or shortness of breath.
- A rapid rate of heartbeat and thumping of the chest.
- Pain in the arms, jaws, and shoulders.
- Feeling of Nausea.
- Extreme dizziness and tiredness.
Factors Contributing to SCAD in Pregnancy
There is no clear and specific cause to SCAD condition but there are many risk factors that may contribute to the condition of SCAD. Some of the conditions are:-
- Females are more tend to get this condition of SCAD in comparison to men as it is a general occurrence in young and middle-aged girls or females.
- There are some women who are more prone to such conditions if they have recently given birth to a child. This condition mostly occurs after the first few weeks post the delivery of a child.
- SCAD condition can also give rise to Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD) which can cause irregular growth of cells in the walls of arteries.
This irregular growth can lead to the weakening of walls of arteries which may lead to blockages, dissections, or aneurysms. This can cause high blood pressure and stroke in women more than men.
- There are genetic diseases that can cause problems with the connective tissues of the body. It may include Vascular Ehlers Danloa Syndrome and Marfan Syndrome which usually occurs in people who have SCAD.
- People with high levels of blood pressure can be associated with SCAD.
- Substance abuse like drugs and illegal use of it can increase the risk of SCAD.
Diagnosis of SCAD
SCAD is a very difficult condition that can not be diagnosed properly because it does not have any warning signs before any occurrence of heart attack and condition of angina.
Coronary angiography can recognize the signs of SCAD and a special screening or intravascular ultrasound required for a proper diagnose.
There are many tests that can be used to diagnose the condition of SCAD which is very similar to the other types of heart attacks. Some of the tests may include:-
Under this Coronary Angiogram, a particular test is done by a doctor by injecting a special type of dye into the arteries of the patient which can be seen during imaging tests. A long tube is inserted into the artery of an arm or leg and is a thread to the arteries in the heart.
After the dye is released the doctors use X-rays to generate pictures of arteries showing the abnormalities in arteries and rhythm of the heart. It diagnoses the arteries in the heart whether they are abnormal or twisted.
Cardiac Computerised Tomography
There is a machine and the body is entered into it by lying on a table and an X-ray tube inside a machine is rotated around the body to get images of the heart and arteries. Computerized tomography of cardiac is used after some of the follow-up tests for the evaluation of SCAD condition.
Intravascular ultrasound is a special imaging test in which a catheter is inserted into arteries to get its pictures by using sound waves. Such an intravascular ultrasound is conducted in addition to coronary angiography for diagnosing SCAD condition.
Optical Coherence Tomography
In this test, a catheter is equipped with a special type of light that can be used for entering the arteries to generate pictures. It is done usually after the coronary angiography where the images will show abnormalities in the arteries. It helps practitioners and doctors to confirm the diagnosis and to conduct treatment of the patient.
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The above-written essay sample is based upon SCAD (Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection) especially during pregnancy.
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