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Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adults Essay Sample 

Autism Spectrum disorder is the specific pattern of behavioural disorder in a child or an adult. It shows a lack of social interaction and communication with others.

This essay will focus on the autism spectrum disorder in children mainly and the symptoms of such disorder in adults. We will thoroughly cover the symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment therapies of autistic disorder in young children.

Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adults Essay Sample

The word ‘spectrum’ means a wide range of variety of symptoms of an illness. Autism has a wide range of symptoms and is difficult to be diagnosed by even the child therapist or psychiatrist.

Autism disorder includes developmental disorder in children, Asperger’s syndrome, and childhood disintegrative disorder.

These symptoms or signs can easily be seen in after the first two years of a child. If these symptoms cannot be recognized by the parents or carers of the child they may create social insecurity in the behavior as he grows up into an adult.

Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children 

  • Children with autism spectrum disorder show signs of reduced eye contact with others as they lack confidence.
  • They do not have a responsive behavior towards others and are mostly indifferent in their attitude towards their carers.
  • There is also a lack of interactive and communication skills in such children as they are not expressive in their thoughts.
  • They lack in social skills and cannot create relationships, strong bonds, and friendships with others. Such children usually have social anxiety and insecurity in their behavior whenever they need to interact with others.

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  • Difficulty in learning is also faced by them as they come either in the category of high intelligence or low intelligence children.
  • Their speech tone and volume of voice is high pitched, mostly loud and abnormal. They cannot easily arrange words and frame simple sentences while speaking to others.
  • Such children with autism spectrum disorder have the problem of repeating of behavior and also lack any expressions on their faces. For example – They make blink their eyes repetitively or spin or bang the surface of the table constantly.
  • Children with such disorders resist any physical touch by others and even like to play alone and not play with other children.
  • The difficulty is faced when they need to interpret the nonverbal or facial expressions of a person and their gestures.
  • Such children are usually sensitive to light and may even experience pain on exposure to any bright source of light.
  • These children are nonorganized, messy, and clumsy.
  • Self-harm or causing injury to themselves can be another trait in such children.
  • Specific preferences in food is there in these children.
  • They are mostly nonflexible or adaptive to even small changes in their life and fix their gaze for a long time on certain objects with focus.

Causes of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children

There is no specific cause or cure for autism spectrum disorder in children. Diagnostic treatment of such a disorder is very difficult as it is a behavior disorder and not a physical disability. They have a wide range of symptoms that can be caused due to genetics or other factors. The cause of the disorder decides the complexity and severity of it.

  • Genetics can be one of the prime causes of autism disorder in children. There can be either a genetic disorder from birth or any genetic mutations(changes) that takes place over a period of time. It can increase the risk of disorder and can cause communication and development disorders in children.
  • Environmental factors may affect the pregnancy of a woman. Any dangerous environmental factors can cause medical complications during labor or in the brain development of the child.

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Diagnosis of symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children

Disorders of the autism spectrum cannot be easily diagnosed by carers or parents. A child psychiatrist, child neurologist or pediatrician can only help a child with these symptoms.

Some of the ways through which autism disorder symptoms can be diagnosed are:-

  • Genetic testing of a child to know if there is any disorder in genes.
  • Taking medical or professional help of a child specialist or mental health specialist children to diagnose such symptoms.
  • Take test of hearing, social behavior, and speech of the child.
  • Observation of communication of such children with other children and people.
  • Monitoring the daily activities and habits of the child.

Therapies or treatment of a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

There is no permanent cure for this disorder but only effective measures can be taken to reduce its symptoms of it.

Early diagnosis of symptoms could help the child to cope with such behavior and social disorder. The early detection of symptoms can help the child in his later stages of life and adulthood.

Some of the therapies that are recommended by medical professionals to treat the symptoms are:-

Behavior and communication therapies

This therapy helps children to address their communication and social disabilities. It helps them to create strong social behaviour, emotional skills, language, and speech.

Applied behavior analysis helps in teaching new skills and concepts to children in handling social situations through a system of motivation.

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Therapies of Education 

A highly structured educational programme can be established for such children with behavior disorders. Different types of teaching techniques to be introduced by the carers to improve the performance and progress of children. Intervention in a child’s behavior is important to improve his social skills.

Family Therapies

Family should teach cultural values, the importance of human interaction, and skills of living. The family members should play with children to teach them social interaction, communication skills, and decision-making.

Medical treatment 

Symptoms can be reduced through medical treatment of children. Antidepressants and antipsychotic drugs and other prescribed medicines is given by the healthcare providers and doctors. It improves the hyper-activeness and anxiety of children.

Treatment of mental health issues of children

Children with autism disorder faces usually anxiety, sleep disorder, epilepsy, etc. A doctor or any professional care can help them to curb these mental health issues.

Therapy for the transition of autistic children to adulthood 

When such children with disorders grow up to become adults they need to be made aware of their physical changes. They should be taught handling social situations, behavior control, facing challenges, and learning to be tolerant.

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Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults

  • The mild difficulty is faced by adults with this disorder. They have difficulty in interpreting of facial expressions and body language of another person. It impacts their performance at the workplace.
  • Face problems in initiating and holding on to a conversation with another person.
  • They avoid direct eye contact with their boss or manager at work.
  • They are good in certain specific areas of work but lack skills for other areas.
  • Their co-employees find it difficult to interact with such people.
  • Difficulty in the apprehension of monologue and difficult conversations.
  • Sometimes such adults are found to be nonparticipative in certain social events.
  • Difficulty in balancing and expressing emotions due to lack of emotional skills.
  • Avoids office meetings and speaking in conferences as it requires a high level of social interaction.
  • Repeat a task or behavior time and again as they doubt their accuracy in work.

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The above-written essay sample is based on the Autism spectrum disorder in children and adults. Causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of this disorder have been discussed properly in this sample.

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Disability, Healthcare, Psychology, Care skills  FETAC Level 5, QQI students can refer to this above sample to write assignments based on similar topics.

Human Development activities , positive aspects of child autism,cognitive theories of autism, adult needs, and occupational therapy are some of the topics closely related to autism spectrum disorder.

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