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Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adults Essay Sample 

Autism Spectrum disorder is the specific pattern of behavioural disorder in a child or an adult. It shows lack of social interaction and communication with others.

This essay will focus upon the autism spectrum disorder in children mainly and symptoms of such disorder in adults. We will thoroughly cover the symptoms, causes, diagnose and treatment therapies of autistic disorder in young children.

The word ‘spectrum’ means a wide range or variety of symptoms of an illness. Autism has wide range of symptoms and is difficult to be diagnosed by even the child therapist or psychiatrist.

Autism disorder includes developmental disorder in children, Asperger’s syndrome and childhood dis integrative disorder.

These symptoms or signs can easily be seen in after the first two years of a child. If these symptoms cannot be recognized by parents or carers of child they may create social insecurity in the behavior as he grows up into an adult.

Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children 

  • Children with autism spectrum disorder show signs of reduced eye contact with others as they lack confidence.
  • They do not have a responsive behavior towards others and are mostly indifferent in their attitude  towards their carers.
  • There is also lack of interactive and communication skills in such children as they are not expressive in their thoughts.
  • They lack in social skills and cannot create relationships , strong bonds and friendship with others. Such children usually have social anxiety and insecurity in their behavior whenever they need to interact with others.
  • Difficulty in learning is also faced by them as they come either in the category of high intelligence or low intelligence children.
  • Their speech tone and volume of voice is high pitched, mostly loud and abnormal. They cannot easily arrange words and frame simple sentences while speaking to others.
  • Such children with autism spectrum disorder have problem of repetition of behavior and also lacks any expressions on face. For example – They make blink eyes repetitively or spin or bang the surface of table constantly.
  • Children with such disorder resist any physical touch by others and even like to play alone and not play with other children.
  • Difficulty is faced when they need to interpret the non verbal or facial expressions of a person and their gestures.
  • Such children are usually sensitive to light and may even experience pain on exposure to any bright source of light.
  • These children are non organized, messy and clumsy.
  • Self harm or causing injury to themselves can be another trait in such children.
  • Specific preferences in food is there in these children.
  • They are mostly non flexible or adaptive to even small changes in their life and fixes their gaze for a long time on certain objects with focus.

Causes of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children

There is no specific cause or cure  for the autism spectrum disorder in children. Diagnostic treatment of such disorder is very difficult as it is a behavior disorder and not a physical disability. They have wide range of symptoms that can be caused due to genetics or other factors. The cause of disorder decides the complexity and severity of it.

  • Genetics can be one of the prime cause of autism disorder in children. There can be either genetic disorder from birth or any genetic mutations(changes) that takes place over the period of time. It can increase the risk of disorder and can cause communication and development disorder in children.
  • Environmental factors may affect the pregnancy of a woman. Any dangerous environmental factors can cause medical complications during labor or in the brain development of the child.

Diagnosis of symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children

Disorder of autism spectrum cannot be easily diagnosed by carers or parents. A child psychiatrist, child neurologist or a pediatrician can only help a child with these symptoms.

Some of the ways through which autism disorder symptoms can be diagnosed are :-

  • Genetic testing of a child to know if there is any disorder in genes.
  • Taking medical or professional help of a child specialist or mental health specialist of children to diagnose such symptoms.
  • Taking test of hearing, social behavior and speech of the child.
  • Observation of communication of such children with other children and people.
  • Monitoring the daily activities and habits of the child.

Therapies or treatment of a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

There is no permanent cure of this disorder but only effective measures can be taken to reduce the symptoms of it.

Early diagnosis of symptoms could help the child to cope up with such behavior and social disorder. The early detection of symptoms can help the child in his later stages of life and adulthood.

Some of the therapies that are recommended by medical professionals to treat the symptoms are :-

Behavior and communication therapies

This therapy helps children to address their communication and social disabilities. It helps them to create a strong social behaviour, emotional skills, language and speech.

Applied behavior analysis helps in teaching new skills and concepts to children in handing social situations through a system of motivation.

Therapies of Education 

A highly structured educational programme can be established for such children with behavior disorder. Different types of teaching techniques to be introduced by the carers to improve the performance and progress of children. Intervention in child’s behavior is important to improve his social skills.

Family Therapies

Family should teach cultural values, importance of human interaction and skills of living. The family members should play with children to teach them social interaction, communication skills and decision making.

Medical treatment 

Symptoms can be reduced through medical treatment of children. Antidepressants and anti-psychotic drugs and other prescribed medicines is given by the healthcare providers and doctors. It improves the hyper-activeness and anxiety of children.

Treatment of mental health issues of children

Children with autism disorder faces usually anxiety, sleep disorder, epilepsy etc. Doctor or any professional care can help them to curb down these mental health issues.

Therapy for transition of autism children to adulthood 

When such children with disorder grow up to become adults they need to be made aware of their physical changes. They should be taught handling social situations, behavior control, facing challenges and learning to be tolerant.

Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults

  • Mild difficulty is faced by adults with this disorder. They have difficulty in interpretation of facial expressions and body language of other person. It impacts their performance at workplace.
  • Face problem in initiating and holding on to conversation with other person.
  • They avoid direct eye contact with their boss or manager at work.
  • They are good in certain specific areas of work but lacks skills for other areas.
  • Their co employees find difficulty to interact with such people.
  • Difficulty in apprehension of monologue and difficult conversations.
  • Sometimes such adults are found to be non participative in certain social events.
  • Difficulty in balancing and expressing emotions due to lack of emotional skills.
  • Avoids office meetings and speaking in conferences as it requires high level of social interaction.
  • Repeat a task or behavior time and again as they doubt their accuracy in work.

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Human Development activities , positive aspects of child autism,cognitive theories of autism, adult needs, occupational therapy are some of the topics closely related to autism spectrum disorder.

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